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Panoramic focal trough

The panoramic radiograph is composed largely of the anatomic structures located within this focal trough. The focal trough is the area in which structures will appear most sharply and clearly. Structures, which fall in front of or behind, the focal trough, can be distorted, magnified or reduced Past studies of the focal trough have used steel pins, steel balls, brass screws, and resolution plates to establish focal trough borders and have shown that the trough has different sizes, shapes, and positions for different panoramic machines.''3 The shape, size, and position of the trough are such that they encom- pass the average-size. Changing the focal trough option of Planmeca SCARA 3 has minimal effects on the accuracy of linear measurements in panoramic radiographs. Acknowledgements This study was the undergraduate thesis and was financially supported by vice Chancellery of Research and Technology of Isfahan University of Medical Science, Isfahan, Iran • Called the Focal Trough in panoramic radiology • Can vary in thickness • Usually pre-set on panoramic machines with variable settings for different size dental arches Image Layer • Patient must be positioned precisely in the machine, and machine set correctly so that the dental arches are in the focal trough

To create a panoramic view, objects in front or behind the focal trough are blurred, leaving a sharp image of the entire mandible in one 2-dimensional plane facilitating the diagnosis of mandible fractures and dentoalveolar trauma (Fig. 1.2.2B). Panoramic radiographs are fast and convenient with minimal training needed for the operating technician The focal trough determines how sharp and detailed structures will appear: anatomy and objects located within the focal trough appear distinct, while those outside the focal trough appear blurry. 5,7,9,13 The focal trough may vary based on the panoramic machine, as manufacturers have designed different models to accommodate varying shapes and.

The focal trough determines how sharp and detailed structures will appear: for instance, anatomy and objects located within the focal trough appear distinct, while those outside the focal trough appear blurry. 5,7,9,13 The focal trough may vary based on the panoramic machine, as manufacturers have designed different models to accommodate. The reason for this is a combination of anatomy and the limitation of the panoramic x-ray equipment. Background. First, a quick explanation of how panoramic x-rays work. Most panoramic x-rays, when they rotate about the patient, are capturing a U-shaped layer of data. This is referred to as the focal trough

For adult (P1) and child (P2) panoramic ex-posures use the focal trough knob to position the patient so that the focal trought light is in the center of the patient's upper and lower third teeth (canines). The roots of the upper and lower front incisors must be located within the focal trough and be on the same vertical plane Panoramic Radiography simplified By AnimationContents:Principles of OPG Real Image, Double Image, Ghost Image Horizontal Magnification Effects of Spatial Ar..

Panoramic radiography is a common imaging modality used in dentistry. Panoramic radiographs provide an overall view of the dentomaxillofacial complex and are often used along with intraoral radiographs during the diagnostic phase of patient treatment Third, the center and boundary of a panoramic focal trough were obtained using smoothing splines. As a result, the minimum thickness and transition of the focal trough could be obtained. If this new algorithm is applied to big data of retrospective CBCT images, standard focal troughs could be established by race, sex, and age group, which would. 11. The closer the rotation center is to the teeth, the narrower the focal trough. In most panoramic machines, the focal trough is wide in the anterior region and narrow in the posterior region. a. Both statements are true. b. Both statements are false. c. The first statement is true; the second statement is false. d A panoramic radiograph is a panoramic scanning dental X-ray of the upper and lower jaw.It shows a two-dimensional view of a half-circle from ear to ear. Panoramic radiography is a form of focal plane tomography; thus, images of multiple planes are taken to make up the composite panoramic image, where the maxilla and mandible are in the focal trough and the structures that are superficial and.

Panoramic Radiography for the General Practitioner - Oral

  1. Comparison of focal trough dimensions and form by resolution measurements in panoramic radiography. J Am Dent Assoc 1987; 114: 639-642. Crossref Medline ISI, Google Scholar. 3 Friedlander AH, Baker JD. Panoramic radiography: an aid in detecting patients at risk of cerebrovascular accident. J Am Dent Assoc 1994; 125: 1598-1603
  2. How to cite this article: Beshtawi K, Qirresh E, Parker M, Shaik S. Custom focal trough in cone-beam computed tomography reformatted panoramic versus digital panoramic for mental foramen position to aid implant planning. J Clin Imaging Sci 2020;10(34)
  3. • In panoramic tomography we need to produce a final shape of focal plane or focal trough, which approximates to the shape of the dental arches. 7. Narrow-beam rotational tomography: • There is a circular synchronized movement of the x- ray tube head and the cassette carrier in the horizontal plane. 8
  4. tive? Panoramic radiography is a modified type of tomog-raphy or image layer radiography. The patient's dental arch must be positioned within a narrow zone of sharp focus known as the focal trough/imaging plane (Figure 2), de-signed by panoramic machine manufacturers as the ideal patient position to produce the optimum image
  5. The panoramic focal trough is designed to accommodate the average arch shape, comprising the tooth-bearing area of the dental arch and the ascending ramus and condyle of the mandibular arch 8, 9, 24. If there is a gap between the average arch shapes assumed by various brands of panoramic equipment,.

Panoramic tomography. The dental arch, though curved, is not the shape of an arc of a circle. To produce the required elliptical, horseshoe-shaped focal trough, panoramic tomographic equipment employs the principle of narrow-beam rotational tomography, but uses two or more centres of rotation The center of rotation changes as the film and tube head rotate around the patient. the rotational change allows the image layer to conform to the elliptical shape of the dental arches. The location and number of rotational centers influence the size and shape of the focal trough. All the machines employ a moving rotational center that traces a. 4.2/5 (154 Views . 17 Votes) The three-dimensional, horseshoe-shaped zone where images are sharp is called the focal trough, or image layer. The panoramic radiograph is composed largely of the anatomic structures located within this focal trough. The focal trough is the area in which structures will appear most sharply and clearly Focal trough (FT) (an area that is three-dimensional, within which, accurate reproduction of structures, can be obtained on a panoramic radiograph), the central point of panoramic radiography varies from machine to machine, and is selective for every machine in thickness and framework History, mechanism of opg, it's principle, focal trough and types of images from OPG are described

The Effect of Changing Focal Trough in a Panoramic Device

Manufacturers vary in the methods employed to produce the panoramic image. However, irrespective of the type of rotational movement involved, the result is the production of an elliptical image layer with three-dimensional form (i.e. height and width) in the shape of the dental arch. This image layer is referred to as the focal trough Panoramic radiographs are commonly used images in dental practice. They depict a large part of the maxillofacial region, including the entire maxilla, mandible and dentition, on a single image. This positions the alveolar bone of the anterior region within the focal trough and therefore produces a clear image of this area. While looking at. Panoramic Bitewing Artifact Explained Normal Average Jaw Focal Trough • Metal restorations located on the molars. • The proper dental arch is selected and all of the teeth that are imaged are within the focal trough. • This will result in no artifacts on the bitewing radiograph. • Metal restorations located on the molars Why is panoramic radiography inherently technique sensitive? Panoramic radiography is a modified type of tomography or image layer radiography. In panoramic radiography, the patient's dental arch must be positioned within a narrow zone of sharp focus known as the image layer or focal trough. (Figure 1) Figure

Panoramic Theory W hy is panoramic radiography inherently technique sensitive? Panoramic radiography is a modified type of tomography or image layer radiography. In panoramic radiography, the patient's dental arch must be positioned within a narrow zone of sharp focus known as the image layer or focal trough. (Figure 1) In panoramic radiography, the patient's dental arch must be positioned within a narrow zone of sharp focus known as the image layer or focal trough. [5] Teeth and structures lying outside this zone of sharp focus will exhibit blurring, distortion, or other artifacts Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition The emergence profile of the anteriors could make it difficult to capture both mandibular and maxillary apices clearly in the panoramic scan. The Panoura 18S also has Multi-Focal Plane capture capability. This means that every scan captures many layers both forward and backward. This creates a wide envelope where much more data is. This thickness is called the image layer or focal trough (Figure 3). Ideally the patient is positioned in the panoramic unit so that the teeth and jaws are located in the image layer. The actual location and contour of the image layer is determined by the design of the panoramic machine

especially with panoramic equipment that allows collimation so that a limited segment of the jaw can be imaged. 12 A. Roots of maxillary anterior teeth positioned outside focal trough toward x-ray tubehead. B. Mandibular arch (unbroken line) in focal trough, maxillary arch (broken line) positioned backward, i.e. toward x-ray tubehead. UTHSCSAD Tomographic radiograph clearly presents only the so-called focal trough (focal plane), while structures outside the focal trough are invisible or blurred. In order to obtain a panoramic radiograph, synchronised movement of X-ray tube and image detector in opposite directions is required Panoramic radiographs are a type of tomography because images are created and blurred together from a mobile radiation source. The space that is imaged by the machine is known as a focal trough, which is where the teeth, bone, and other features can be seen TO PAN is a dental phantom that allows the complex focal trough of the panoramic x-ray unit to be quantified. This allows full assessment of parameters affecting image quality. Can be used in film and digital systems. TO PAN enables: Quantification of the focal trough and image layer. Accurate determination of the bite offset

Panoramic Radiography - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

Reduce Your Panoramic Imaging Errors - Dimensions of

  1. Panoramic Corporation has issued a voluntary recall of certain PC-1000 panoramic X-ray machines due to a potential problem with its lift motor, which can result in severe injury to a patient or staff member. The recall only affects machines with serial numbers 6001 to 13885 that were manufactured between 1996 and 2003
  2. Focal trough. The focal trough (image layer) is defined as an invisible area three dimensional curved zone in which structures are clearly demonstrated on a panoramic radiograph. The shape of the focal trough varies, depending on the equipment manufacturer. The structures located within the focal trough appear reasonably well defined on a.
  3. Panoura carries you into the world of digital panoramic, cephalometric, and 3D imaging with an affordable, user-friendly and comprehensive system. With a user-adjustable focal trough, errant images can be brought back into focus after acquisition. At various speeds, the Panoura 18S can take a quick pan of 6 seconds, up to a 16 second pan.

Using the 1.5 Ip/mm pairs/mm using resolution test patterns: Kyokko resolution limits, the focal trough limits in the Type 1 from Optonix (Kasei, Tokyo, Japan) and midline were 14 mm for DigiPan, 17 mm for film, 23 mm for DenOptix, and 20 mm for the OP 100 Models 07-501 and 07-525 from Nuclear Associ- D Focal trough • Focal trough is a three dimensional image layer in which structures are reasonably well defined on panoramic radiograph.. OPG and Extraoral radiography - SlideShar . While ghost images often occur due to metallic objects, they can also occur due to anatomical structures located outside the image layer or focal trough in most panoramic x-ray machines, the focal trough is narrow in the anterior region and wide in the posterior region the quality of the resulting panoramic radiograph depends on the postioning of the patient's teeth within the focal trough and how closely the patient's jaws conform to the focal trough designed for the average ja

Optimal Panorex Imaging - Decisions in Dentistr

  1. ate redundant shadows and ghost images, Automatic Cervical Vertebrae (ACV) to
  2. Planmeca Proline EC Panoramic X-ray 5 PM PROLINE EC PANORAMIC X-RAY - MAIN PARTS User's manual 5 PM PROLINE EC PANORAMIC X-RAY - MAIN PARTS General view of the X-ray Control panel Patient support handles Cassette carriage Focal trough positioning light Rotating unit Tube head assembly Temple supports Patient positioning mechanism Cassette drive.
  3. ation of the bite offset

View 20.+Panoramic+radiography from DENT 291 at University of Michigan. Basic Radiology 506/209 PanoramicRadiography Optimal Panoramic Radiograph Panoramic Radiography Rotating x-ray source an Focal Trough. Panoramic radiographs blur out some anatomic structures in order to detail others. The U-shaped area where the maxilla and mandible are the sharpest is the image layer or focal trough. Image sharpness within the trough is determined by the position of the object in respect to the x-ray source and the film plane as it rotates. In panoramic radiography, a selected layer of the dental arch structure is in sharp focus, called the focal trough, which is in a vertical curved plane having a horizontal dimension or width designed to portray radiographically part of the bone of the maxilla, part of the bone of the mandible, and the teeth

a three-dimensional curved zone in which structures are clearly demonstrated on a panoramic radiograph focal trough the structures positioned outside the ____ _____ appear blurred or indistinct and are not readily visible on the pan This study aims to introduce a new algorithm developed using retrospective cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data to obtain a standard dental and mandibular arch shape automatically for an optimal panoramic focal trough. A custom-made program was developed to analyze each arch shape of randomly collected 30 CBCT images. First, volumetric data of the mandible were binarized and projected in. a. the focal trough b. the rotation center Rare earth intensifying screens are recommended in panoramic imaging because: a. rare earth screens emit a blue light b. rare earth screens provide a more diagnostic image c. rare earth screens require less x-ray exposure for the patien The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough

Moving-center rotation The collimator used in the panoramic x-ray machine is a lead plate with an opening in the shape of a narrow vertical slit Screen film is used in panoramic imaging: placed between two intensifying screens in a cassette holder. The screens contain a layer of material called Phosphor which has the ability to fluoresce Common Errors Ghost images: A radiographic artifact seen. Carestream 9300 Select 3D Cone Beam and Panoramic X-ray $ 48,000.00 $ 20,000.00. Availability: In Stock. Category: Uncategorized. Share: Carestream 9300 Select 3D Cone Beam and Panoramic X-ray. Products Model: NIS-KOD-CBCT05 Manufacturer: Carestream Dental (Kodak). Panoramic Imaging. Produces complete dentition overview; Adjustable focal trough; fast and easy to use panoramic unit delivering high image quality; built-in sensor with automatic sensor selection according to program (2D or 3D) Includes Acquisition Computer. Monitor, keyboard and mouse are not included It is important to note that research on the use of panoramic radiographs cautions against using panoramic images as a screening film for what? Occult diseases. Panoramic radiography is based on the principle of what? Tomography. Where is focal trough wider and narrower at? wider- Posterior. Narrow- Anterior

Pseudo root resorption. Case report Pseudo root resorption. Case report Keur, J. J.; Huggins, D. G. 1996-08-01 00:00:00 Abstract The importance of the correct position of the focal trough in panoramic radiography is demonstrated for the information of practitioners. Key words: Pseudo root resorption, panoramic radiographs, focal trough, lateral cephalograms, orthodontics By the nature of panoramic radiography those structures within the focal trough will be visualized most clearly. The vertebrae appear on both the right and left edges of the film and in continuous-cycle projections (Fig. 54), for example, Orthopantomograph, Panelipse, and Panoral, the cervical vertebrae will be seen superimposed over midline. a position in which the lower margins of the orbits, the orbitales, and the upper margins of the ear canals, the poria, all lie in the same horizontal plane. what is the Frankfort plane position. anterior teeth are narrow and blurred. spine superimposes the posterior parts of the mandible

Why Won't My Panoramic X-Rays Show the Anterior Apices

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  4. Adaptive moving focus optimizes the focal trough to produce high quality panoramic images. (Minimizes image quality issues caused by faulty patient positioning). 100μm Voxe

Video: Animated Principles of Panaromic Radiography OPG Focal

Focal Trough or IMAGE LAYER — The image layer is a three-dimensional curved zone, where the structures lying within this layer are reasonably well defined on final panoramic image. — The structures seen on a panoramic image are primarily those located within the image layer. Objects outside the image layer are blurred, magnified, or reduced i Panoramic Radiography: Normal Variants and Pathology Jimmie L. Harper D.D.S., M.S. Focal trough Formed when the object is in between the center of rotation and image receptor. Composite of in-focused and blurred images . Focal cemento-osseous dysplasia 3

Focal trough and patient positioning Dentomaxillofacial

Changes may occur over time to the focal trough that interfere with the diagnostic quality of the machine. 6 If a decrease in image quality is noted in spite of following accurate patient positioning steps, the panoramic x-ray machine should be inspected and the focal trough recalibrated. The dental hygienist who is skilled in understanding. Focal Trough: The horseshoe shaped area where the images are in focus. Objects in front of or behind the Focal Trough can be distorted in the 2D panoramic radiograph. Tomogram: A cross-sectional slice across a particular plane in object being studied via radiographic imaging captured by moving the x-ray source and the sensor in opposite directions Panoramic images are often difficult to interpret due to significant superimposition; additionally, structures that are not centered in the focal trough are often not visualized or obscured beyond recognition. Additionally, even on the best panoramic, the exact location of the mesiodens cannot be determined The vertical and horizontal dimensions of the anatomy match only when the anatomy lies within a particular plane, commonly called the image layer, focal trough or focal plane. (2) Located between the x-ray tube and the film, the 3-D focal plane is created by the motion of the film and the x-ray tube How does the number and location of rotation centers impact the focal trough? Definition. impact the size and shape: Term. What is the focal trough? Definition. three-dimensional curved zone where the oral structures are well defined on a panoramic radiograph: Term. What are positioned within the focal trough? Definition. the teeth: Term. What.

The affordable basic program package includes standard panoramic, child panoramic, bitewing, lateral double TMJ, PA sinus, and vertical segmentation. • Adjustable focal trough for size and shape (9 different combinations) • Open-architecture Planmeca Romexis imaging software included • Mac OS/PC compatible Panoramic - CS 9300 delivers fast and accurate panoramic images including: standard, pediatric and segmented, TMJ (2 or 4 views) and maxillary sinus. The adjustable focal trough ensures anatomically correct images each and every time. 3D - The innovative CS 9300 delivers crystal-clear, high-quality 3D/CBCT images in seconds. Choose from a. Incorrect calibration of the panoramic machine may lead to an incorrect path of rotation resulting in a focal trough not coinciding accurately with the shape of the dental arches. This would affect the image quality by altering the ratio between vertical and horizontal magnification of structures within the focal trough (Razmus et al, 1989) A series of 1-mm thick cross-sectional slices allows volume browsing along the panoramic focal trough. You can evaluate bone availability and mandibular canal position, acquire 1:1 measurements, and simulate implant placement of various sizes and diameters. Users can browse slices in real-time to for proper fit throughout the implant site.The.

Dr. Andrew Trosien compares 2D to 3D radiography in this interesting presentation Focal trough was set to be 15 mm thickness in all of the generated panoramic images. Two calibrated observers: One oral radiologist and one oral implantologist with 8 years of experience with CBCT and dental implants were responsible for creating the different panoramic images and measuring the mesiodistal dimensions of implant sites on them. Panoramic radiographs use a technology where a focal trough is captured of the patients. All structures with in the trough are imaged clearly but structures outside are blurry and overlap other anatomy. The accuracy lacks due to the innate nature of the capturing of the image. Poor measurement accuracy is a down fall of this technology The dental panoramic tomograph is a sectional radiograph and only structures that are within the section will be evident and in focus on the film. The narrow focal trough in the anterior.

Panoramic (child and adult) and four view open & closed TMJ imaging Simplified controls permit operator to select kV and either Panoramic or TMJ mode; mA and exposure time are constant Three-light beam system for alignment of patient mid-sagittal, frankfort and focal-trough plane The widely used panoramic radiography as a special kind of tomography underlies intrinsic procedural restrictions such as poor definition, inconsistent magnification, geometric distortion and spatial depositioning of objects situated outside the focal trough. This results in a non-anatomic display of the radiographed anatomic structures What is the size and path of the x-ray beam in a Panoramic machine? Narrow vertical beam rotates in a horizontal plane around a rotation center. Negative Beam Angle (-7 to -10°) Where is the rotational center? Objects outside the focal trough are not sharp and appear fuzzy on the radiograph

The vertical magnification of a panoramic image is constant throughout the image, but horizontal magnification is dependent on the position of a structure in the focal trough. 3 what is the focal trough (or image layer It features up to seven selectable fields of view for 3D images, ranging from 5 cm x 5 cm to 17 cm x 13.5 cm. Additionally, the CS 9300 offers clinicians 2D digital panoramic imaging with variable focal trough technology Principles of Rotational Panoramic Radiography Panoramic Cassettes. Screens Panorex Panelipse Focal Trough. The three-dimensional curved zone or Image Layer in which structures are well defined. Focal trough size affected by arc path, velocity of the film and x-ray tube, beam alignment, and collimator width Description: The Kodak 8000 delivers fast and accurate panoramic dental X-ray images including standard, pediatric and segmented, TMJ (2 or 4 views), and maxillary sinus. The adjustable focal trough ensures anatomically correct images each and every time. The Kodak 8000 features face-to-face positioning, putting patients at ease, facilitating positioning, and minimizing ris Panoramic radiographs are curved surface __ back 2. tomograms. front 3. Indications for Panoramic Radiography: back 3. Evaluation of trauma; Third molars - Objects of interest are outside of focal trough; front 6. Three dimensional curved volume that is an imaginary plane corresponding to jaw: back 6. Focal trough. front 7. Panoramic use.

Panoramic imaging (1)

Automatic analysis algorithm for acquiring standard dental

rotational panoramic, cephalometric and tomographic (a) (b) Fig 3. (a) Panoramic radiograph with the occlusal plane in the incorrect position (chin up). (b) Same patient with the chin down further. (a) (b) Fig 4. (a) Cropped panoramic radiograph with the anterior teeth inside the focal trough, resulting in horizontal enlargement an col for the panoramic-mode on the CBCT machines and the stand-alone machine, respectively. The Pan DXTTR phantom was situated within each device using positioning lasers to ensure that the mandible of the phantom was in the focal trough. Panoramic radiographs were performed using the average adult protocol in the Carestream 9300 and ProMax 2D, an Adjustment of the focal trough position will also have an impact. The pattern of exposure variation within the head during panoramic imaging is complex owing to the sophisticated movement patterns of the X-ray tube and the detector

Chapter 22 DR Flashcards Quizle

An Orthopantomogram (OPG) is a panoramic scanning dental radiograph (X-Ray) of the upper and lower jaw. It shows a two dimensional view of both jaws from ear to ear. With our technology, we offer high resolution panoramic radiographs with adjustable focal trough Effect of border sharpness on the size and position of the focal trough of panoramic x-ray machines. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1985;60:670-6. CAS Article Google Scholar 16. Martinez-Cruz S, Manson-Hing LR. Comparison of focal trough dimensions and form by resolution measurements in panoramic radiography Panoramic radiography is a form of focal plane tomography; thus, images of multiple planes are taken to make up the composite panoramic image, where the maxilla and mandible are in the focal trough and the structures that are superficial and deep to the trough are blurred In panoramic radiography, the ____ is a theoretical concept used to determine where the dental arches must be positioned to achieve the clearest image. Focal trough Structures are clearly demonstrated on a panoramic radiograph in a ____ zone

Diagnostic setup

A panoramic film that had ghost like appearance in which the mandible is wide and blurred is due to being positioned. 5X12. The film size for a panoramic survey. Zone of sharpness. A focal trough in panoramic radiography is the. 1. To help diagnose fractures. when a patient can't open mouth Only a single panoramic exposure to an X-ray source is needed to simultaneously provide a plurality of different real time and/or permanently recorded tomographic images of a focal trough of a patient's dental arch area. Contrast, intensity and magnification properties relating to tissue, bone, teeth, cheeks, and the like, may readily be varied by the dentist, physician or medical technician.

Panoramic radiograph - Wikipedi

The Pan DXTTR phantom was situated within each device using positioning lasers to ensure that the mandible of the phantom was in the focal trough. Panoramic radiographs were performed using the average adult protocol in the Carestream 9300 and ProMax 2D, and the large protocol in the i‐CAT NG If the degree of magnification in the horizontal and vertical dimensions was the same in the central plane of the focal trough, all of the structures, including the upper and lower teeth, would be in focus on the final radiograph. 4 In panoramic radiography, the focal trough is narrow in the anterior and wider in the posterior areas

Synonyms for panoramic radiography in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for panoramic radiography. 1 synonym for radiography: skiagraphy. What are synonyms for panoramic radiography The PaX-i Insight is capable of taking a multi-layered panoramic image called an Insight Pan which provides a unique, in-depth look across a single focal trough. Since each patient may have a slightly different arch, conventional panoramic images may occasionally miss important details which land outside of a single focal layer. Insight Pans. The CRANEX® Basex is a basic panoramic unit. It has the most common imaging modes, the adult and child panoramic used in every day clinical work. The manual height adjustment, two positioning lights and the focal trough adjustment without numerical readout are the main differences compared to its big brother the CRANEX® Excel The dental X-ray package is a true insurance of quality with all the benefits of the RAJAS technology. The technic al features of our tube heads make them the safest on the market. An extremely high dielectric coefficient is obtained trough use of specially treated oil. The high voltage transformer comes with the bes

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