Home

How to change ISO on Canon Rebel XSi

ISO: Changing the ISO Speed to Suit the Light Level (EOS Rebel T7) Solution. Set the ISO speed (image sensor's sensitivity to light) to suit the ambient light level. In Basic Zone modes, the ISO speed is set automatically Press the button. [ISO speed] will appear One of the cameras I shoot with often is the Canon Rebel Xti. When adjusting the camera settings it is quite obvious how to change ISO and shutter speed, but changing the f-stop / aperature isn't quite as obvious or intuitive. You'll need to be in Manual, P, or AV modes in order to adjust All forums Canon Rebel (EOS 200D-800D) Talk Change forum. EOS 450D High ISO (1600, 3200, 6400) A realistic test of how well the 450D/XSi performs with high ISO. Hand held at f9, 90mm (90 x 1.6 = 144mm). Boosting the electrically combined signal with high iso settings does not change the fact that the signal to noise ratio is lower to. The EOS Rebel XSi has a huge, bright 3.0-inch TFT LCD monitor with 230,000 pixels and a viewing angle of 170°. It's perfect for Live View composition or viewing camera settings like AF, ISO, Metering, AF Point selection and flash options. And the maximum brightness of the EOS Rebel XSi LCD monitor is about 30% greater than its predecessor. If you do want to tinker with manual controls, the Rebel XSi improves over its predecessors by letting you change the ISO setting without taking your eye away from the viewfinder: with older models, you can only set the ISO by checking the values on the camera's LCD screen

Canon Knowledge Base - ISO: Changing the ISO Speed to Suit

  1. The Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi/450D is a very versatile camera. You can choose the fully automatic mode and use the Rebel XSi/450D as a point-and-shoot, or you can go old-school and fine-tune settings exactly as you like. The many features of the camera let you take control of your photographs
  2. A proficiency test is required to check out this camera. Schedule a proficiency at the front desk of Media Loan or by calling 360-867-6253. Read this operating guide and Canon Rebel T1i/T2i Operating Guide and complete the written portion of the Canon Rebel Proficiency Test prior to your scheduled proficiency. Bring your answer sheet with you to the test, which should take approximately 30.
  3. How To Set Aperture On Canon 450d. Aperture-priority AE mode is shown on the camera Mode dial as Av. Av mode is a semiautomatic mode that enables you to control the aperture. In this mode, you change the aperture by turning the Main dial, and then the camera automatically calculates and sets the appropriate shutter speed

How to Adjust Your F Stop / Aperature With Canon Rebel Xti

EOS 450D High ISO (1600, 3200, 6400): Canon Rebel (EOS

  1. This video Shows you a little about shutter & ApertureFull two disc DVD @ http://www.elitevideo.co
  2. Plus the XSi has a very limited ISO range. Whether the photo is sharp or blurry is secondary if exposure can't be successfully accomplished. It is good you don't have problems getting proper exposure using Tv mode but we are not dealing with your shooting but trying to help the OP get proper exposed and sharper photos
  3. Change your camera from the 'green box' to the 'P' setting. This will put you in a higher level of auto mode. Look in the manual on how to set the cameras ISO. Find something to photograph (a well lit subject like you had in your examples) and photograph it at ISO 100, ISO 200, ISO 400 and ISO 800
  4. How to set the shutter priority setting on your Canon EOS Rebel XS / 1000D, from the Canon EOS Digital Field Guid
  5. The viewfinder's status display now shows the ISO setting all the time, which is a plus. Just press the ISO button on the top deck, and turn the Main dial to scroll through the options, pressing it..

Canon U.S.A., Inc. EOS Rebel XS

Canon EOS Rebel T1i First Hands On: 50D's Sensor, 1080p

Canon's EOS Rebel XSi. The 40D has a faster burst rate (five frames per second versus the XSi's three), more customization, the ability to change ISO in fractional stops, and one or two. The bad Maximum ISO 1600; huge spot-for-spot metering. The bottom line It doesn't stand out for its feature set or design, but the Canon EOS Rebel XSi delivers on performance and photo quality. How old is the Canon Rebel XS? Canon EOS 1000D is a 10.1-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera announced by Canon on 10 June 2008 and starte Canon Rebel T1i/T2i Operating Guide. A proficiency test is required to check out this camera. Schedule a proficiency at the front desk of Media Loan or by calling 360-867-6253. Read this operating guide and Canon Rebel XT / XSi Operating Guide and complete the written portion of the Canon Rebel Proficiency Test prior to your scheduled proficiency Relative pixel sizes: vs. Pixel area difference: 5.55 µm² (21%) A pixel on Canon Digital Rebel XS sensor is approx. 21% bigger than a pixel on Canon Digital Rebel XSi. Pixel density. 3.08 MP/cm². 3.71 MP/cm². Pixel density tells you how many million pixels fit or would fit in one square cm of the sensor It's been a month since I've upgraded to the new Canon 7D from a Canon 450D (Rebel XSi), so I it's time to share a small review about it. I am a starter passionate photographer therefore I'm orienting this post to a very simple review more focused to the user experience with the camera and not so much the ISO comparison and pixel peep you will find in many other reviews

Note: You are comparing cameras of different generations. There is a 2 year gap between Canon Digital Rebel XSi (2008) and Canon 60D (2010).All things being equal, newer sensor generations generally outperform the older The Rebel XSi is about $ 150 less than its younger sibling. So if you think the improvements are enough for you to shell out another $ 150, then the Canon Rebel T1i is the right choice. If those features are not as important to you as the ability to take great still photos and change lenses when you want to change output, then the Canon Rebel. Access Free Canon Rebel Xsi Settings Guide To change the ISO sensitivity setting on the XSi/450D, follow these steps: 1. Set the camera to a Creative Zone mode such as P, Tv, Av, and so on, and then press the ISO button on the top of the camera. The ISO speed screen appears in the viewfinder. Setting the ISO Sensitivity - Canon EOS Rebel XSi.

People Standing on Dock during Sunrise · Free Stock Photo

Canon Rebel XSi (450D) Guide To change the ISO sensitivity setting on the XSi/450D, follow these steps: 1. Set the camera to a Creative Zone mode such as P, Tv, Av, and so on, and then press the ISO button on the top of the camera. The ISO speed screen appears in the viewfinder. Setting the ISO Sensitivity - Canon EOS Rebel XSi 450D Guid Canon Rebel xti Iso setting. Discussion in 'Canon EOS' started by rachel_sharkey, Jul I am kind of regretting my choice of lenses since I don't want to change lenses mid game, nor do I want to carry two cameras, but I find that often I miss the action that is closer to me than the big lens allows. HTP wasn't introduced to the Rebel line. The 40D has a faster burst rate (five frames per second versus the XSi's three), more customization, the ability to change ISO in fractional stops, and one or two other high-end options

Canon Rebel XSi (450D) Guid

  1. Canon 40D: 800: 10.2: Canon 450D / Rebel XSi: 400 (try 800 as well) 10.3: Canon 500D / Rebel T1i You'll find there was a major change in DSLRs starting around the Canon 80D — the best speed is 200 on the newer models, 800 or 1600 on the older ones. Could you point me in the right direction for finding the suggested iso for the.
  2. 450D Increase ISO to 3200/6400 in Canon EOS Digital Cameras 7D, Rebel T2i, 24-105mm f/4 L IS USM, 70-300mm f/4-5.6 L, 100mm f/2.8 L Macro IS USM, 24mm f/1.4 L II USM, 10-22mm USM, 17-85mm IS USM, Sigma 30mm f/1.4, An example using Canon 450D/XSi with 55-250IS - ISO 1600 - original pic looked underexposed but shooting in RAW and.
  3. Always made me sad that the xs and xsi don't have an in camera iso 3200 option as their high iso performance is so good. Unfortunately getting video to work on the xsi (ie dumping the live view data as a mjpeg avi to the sd card) would be way, way, more difficult so don't get your hopes up for that lol
  4. I have a canon Rebel xs. And the best ISO to shoot at is 400 or 200. If you go to high your larger prints will be grainy. Also too Depending on the program you can fix the noise, it is fixable. See if your program Has noise reduction, watch cause you don't want to up the levels To much cause then your portrait looks like a water colo
  5. d the button is a toggle; it goes 5x, 10x, 0x, in order. You can't punch into 5x and then use the Exposure Lock button to punch back out again
  6. The resolution of the 12.2 Megapixel Canon 450D imaging chip is 4272 by 2848 pixels. ISO setting was 100 and a 1/250 second exposure was used to help freeze the poor seeing conditions. Here is the Full Frame image taken
  7. Canon EOS Rebel XSi Manual is aimed to fulfill the needs toward information of both technical or instrumental issue among this digital camera product especially for Canon EOS Rebel XSi. Canon EOS Rebel XSi / EOS 450D is a high performance, digital single lens reflex camera with a 12.20 megapixel image sensor

Canon Digital Rebel XSi/450D For Dummies Cheat Sheet - dummie

Canon Rebel XSi Operating Guide - Help Wik

The camera will be more secure and easier to carry if you have the strap attached. Cover Your Shot, or One Shot Is Rarely Enough of the XS manual shows how to attach the strap. Figure 1-1. From left to right, the Rebel XS's media slot, lens mount button and reference dot, and battery All told the Canon's made a credible case for the step-up-from-point-and-shoot customers to give the XSi a hard look. At least until the others pop out of their design sheds, er labs. Canon Rebel Xsi Canon EOS DIGITAL REBEL XSi is amateur SLR camera. It started producing in early 2008. This model has three different names: Canon EOS DIGITAL REBEL XSi for the US, Canon EOS 450D for Europe, Canon EOS KISS Х2 DIGITAL for Japan. Despite the different names for one, this is the same camera. This review presents a copy, brought in the United States, and, accordingly, has a

Digital Rebel XSi's settings for ISO, Metering mode, AF mode and White balance are directly accessible by pressing one of the buttons of the 4-way controller, and not available in the shooting menu. The metering system can be set for Evaluative, Partial (9%), Spot (4%) or Center-weighted average The EOS KISS X2 is compatible with Canon's EF lineup of over 60 lens models, including the EF-S18-55mm f/3.5-5.6 IS and EF-S55-250mm f/4-5.6 IS image stabilization-equipped lenses included in the lens kit packages. 1/4000 sec. to 30 sec., bulb (Total shutter speed range. Available range varies by shooting mode. Canon EOS 450D (aka Rebel XSi & Kiss Digital x2) Here's a pratice page to help you understand, you just have to change the settings on the page and you will see the results from the image that is posted: (ISO, shutter speed, and aperture) and how they relate to each other

How To Set Aperture On Canon 450d - Canon EOS Rebel XSi

  1. Canon EOS Rebel XS for astro imaging? - posted in DSLR, Mirrorless & General-Purpose Digital Camera DSO Imaging: My only deep space imaging experience has been with the original Meade DSI colour, which not only has a tiny chip but wont work with any of the newest versions of Windows. I have seen some excellent deep sky images taken by people using digital cameras
  2. See the image in large LCD with Live View Function The EOS Rebel XSi has a huge, bright 3.0-inch TFT LCD monitor with 230,000 pixels and a viewing angle of 170 degrees. It s perfect for Live View composition or viewing camera settings like AF, ISO, Metering, AF Point selection and flash options
  3. Product Description Manufacturer Description For stunning photography with point and shoot ease, look no further than Canon's EOS Rebel XSi. The EOS Rebel XSi brings staggering technological innovation to the masses. It features Canon's EOS Integrated Cleaning System, Live View Function, a powerful DIGIC III Image Processor, plus a new 12.2-megapixel CMOS sensor
  4. Greetings, folks! I want to take a long-exposure picture of the stars in the night sky. I have RTFM and I know that I must set the exposure to the BULB setting. I have also set the ISO setting to 100 instead of leaving it on AUTO. My problem is that I cannot actually snap a picture. When I..

The EOS Rebel XSi also has an improved, high magnification viewfinder that provides a larger overall view, and increased brightness and clarity. And the EOS Rebel XSi has a Display-Off sensor that automatically turns the LCD monitor off whenever the camera is at the photographer's eye see the phot settings. Canon EOS Rebel XS/1000D For Dummies Cheat Sheet Canon EOS Rebel XSi Drivers Support. Canon EOS Rebel XSi Driver, Setup, Manual & Software. Canon Rebel XSi (a.k.a Canon EOS 450D) is Canon's latest mass consumer DSLR, moving into the company's ranks one step above the current Rebel XTi. Canon Rebel Xsi Manual Setting want2takepics: I have read about it over and over, but still can't quite get it - can somone explain it to me very simply? thanks for your tim The XSi has no video mode. - ISO: 3200 vs. 1600 Like they say, there's no such thing as a free lunch. A higher ISO *will* result in more noise in a captured image. As a rule of thumb, set your ISO to the lowest practicable ISO setting. The lower upper range for the XSi isn't, in my opinion, a big restriction. - LCD Resolution: 920,000 vs.

The Canon Digital Rebel XSi is the first Digital Rebel to use SD(HC) memory cards for image storage rather than CF cards The change isn't really a big deal since SD cards (and higher capacity SDHC cards) are now as easily available as CF cards, cost around the same in $/GB, and can be found in capacities of up to 16 and 32GB The Canon EOS Rebel XSi Digital Camera incorporates a number of high-end functions and technology found in Canon's professional SLR models, including an improved autofocus sensor, enhanced 14-bit A/D conversion, and an advanced Live View function. Plus the proprietary DIGIC III image processor ensures that the fine details and natural colors of the images are optimally recorded, and also.

The Canon 450D Rebel XSi has a hardware based sensor cleaning and dust removal system to help keep dust off of the sensor. The Rebel Xsi comes with A-Dep feature, which optimizes the image of small groups of people by adjusting the depth of the picture field so that all of the subjects are in clear focus Canon EOS Rebel XSi. Critic Reviews (5) or a better camera.-Only 1 dial so you have to push the Av button to change the aperture when in Manual mode. into photos in 800 ISO and beyond.

Canon EOS 450D / Rebel XSi sensor and processing. The Canon EOS 450D / XSi is equipped with a new 12.2 Megapixel CMOS sensor, measuring 22.2×14.8mm. It generates 3:2 aspect ratio images with a maximum resolution of 4272×2848 pixels and there's the choice of two lower resolutions. All three sizes can be recorded with either Fine or Normal. Canon EOS Rebel XSi (with 18-55mm lens, Black) rebelxsi $725.00 Canon EOS Rebel XSi (with 18-55mm lens, silver) 2757b003 $259.95 Canon EOS Rebel XSi Specs - CNET Canon Rebel XSi (EOS 450D / Kiss X2) 715nm Standard IR converted camera. 4.5 out of 5 stars. (15) 15 product ratings - Canon Rebel XSi Updated 12/23/08: The 12.2-megapixel Canon Digital Rebel XSi, which targets entry-level digital SLR shooters, has all the features that novices expect--as well as an alluring array of advanced. Exif Print (Exif 2.21): The Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi conforms to Exif Print, a worldwide standard. Vital camera settings (such as: exposure mode, white balance, exposure time) and scene data are recorded to the image file when it is captured Canon Rebel XS Review. I would not look to buy a Canon EOS Rebel XS. The Canon Rebel Ti (300V) or Rebel T2 (300X) cost the same, are newer, and have a better build quality. If you're a beginner photographer, or just looking to do some film photography, I wouldn't be in a rush to replace the Rebel XS. For casual shooting, the Rebel XS works well

If you're as excited as we are about the Rebel XSi/450D, you probably can't wait to start shooting. Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi/450D For Dummies will show you how to make every shot count! Even if you're new to digital SLR cameras or are unfamiliar with general photography terms and techniques, this handy guide will show you how to feel comfortable with the controls and start taking. The Canon Rebel XSi Crash Course DVD (Training Guide) by Michael The Mentor takes the viewer on a step-by-step tour of the Canon Rebel XSi. The DVD simplifies SLR digital photography and shows students how to use simple techniques to take better photographs. In addition to the XSi Crash Course, the DVD also includes the Digital Photography Crash Cours The Canon EOS Rebel XSi comes as a welcome change, and a model worthy of upgrading from your old Rebel XT. It may have a typical, uninspired body design and a modest feature set, but where it really counts-performance and image quality-the XSi manages to stand out from the crowd. ISO 400. ISO 800. ISO 1600. Canon Rebel XSi Accessories. As with every other DSLR on the market, there are a wide range of accessories available for the Canon Rebel XSi. Below, I have highlighted some of the more popular ones. Canon BG-E5 Battery Grip. The Canon BG-E5 battery grip was designed for the Rebel XSi and Rebel XS body styles

• 12.2 Megapixel CMOS sensor • Canon's EOS Integrated Cleaning System • 3.5 frames per second • 3.0 LCD with Live View shooting • 9-point wide-area AF system with f/2.8 cross-type centre point • Picture Style image processing parameters • DIGIC III image processor • Digital Photo Professional RAW processing software1 • Compact and Lightweight body • Fully compatible. Product Information. Get advanced features and convenient portability with the Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi camera. This impressive yet diminutive DSLR camera can help take your personal photography efforts to another level. Weighing in at only 18.5 ounces, the Canon EOS 450D is small enough to fit in the average palm Rebel XSi Canon EOS Rebel XSi (Body Only, Silver) 2757b001. Canon EOS Rebel XSi (with 18-55mm lens, Black) rebelxsi $725.00. Canon EOS Rebel XSi (with 18-55mm lens, silver) 2757b003 $259.95. Canon EOS Rebel XSi review: Canon EOS Rebel XSi - CNET Canon EOS Digital Solution Disk (Version 17.0) The EOS Rebel XSi comes bundled with Page 7/1

Read Book Canon Rebel Xsi Settings Guide To change the ISO sensitivity setting on the XSi/450D, follow these steps: 1. Set the camera to a Creative Zone mode such as P, Tv, Av, and so on, and then press the ISO button on the top of the camera. The ISO speed screen appears in the viewfinder My camera is a little over a year old, Canon EOS Rebel Xsi, and now it gives overexposed outdoor photographs - Answered by a verified Digital Camera Technician. We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on our website. Is there a way to change the iso for the sports mode

Lion head by rukiasan on deviantART

I am using a Canon EOS Rebel XSI with a EFS 55-255 lens, photos I take of my son's high school football games in sport mode are great until the sun goes completly down, the photos after the sun goes down are blury. I am not sure what I need to configure, the ISO speed, the AF settings or both.. Canon Rebel XSi (450D) Guide Canon EOS Rebel XSi Manual is aimed to fulfill the needs toward information of both technical or instrumental issue among this digital camera product especially for Canon EOS Rebel XSi. Canon EOS Rebel XSi / EOS 450D is a high performance, digital single lens reflex camera with a 12.20 megapixel image sensor The noise at higher ISO's isn't quite up to a D3, maybe very close to the 5D at ISO 800 and 1600, but more importantly, all this quality for $600. I think something that is quite important here is what value Canon is giving consumers at this price point. IMHO the XSi represents the kind of value and quality potential we may see in th The Rebel's design is improved in the digital version, at least for me, in the changed location of the aperture control. You can maintain a good grip on the camera while switching controls. I use this camera with the kit lens (Canon EFS 18-55 mm) and the Canon EF 75-300 mm zoom telephoto lens that I got in the packaged deal

Waterfalls 1 Duluth, Minnesota by OTBWriter on deviantARTRainbow Dash - Awesome Shirt by MadDoggyca on deviantART

Canon Knowledge Base - Setting the Aperture and Shutter

Canon XSi, 18-55mm kit lens. With IS on: Sample. With IS OFF: Sample (BTW, NO sharpening on any of the above, I did re-convert the raw to JPG, and set all settings to Zero for both.. Really!) So... now I want you all to go try this and see what you come up with To adjust shutter speed: Rotate the Main dial. To adjust aperture: Rotate the Quick Control dial. B (Bulb exposure): Rotate the Main dial to set the f-stop. You control shutter speed through the shutter button: The shutter remains open as long as you hold the button down. C (Camera User Settings) mode: Use the same technique as for the exposure. Delete button not working ( Canon EOS 400D ) - Canon EOS 400D / Rebel XTi Digital Camera 1) Put lens or camera cap on, go to a dark room to be sure if you want2) Take JPG+RAW shot, maybe at different ISO and shutter speeds, one could be 30 sec/ISO 16003) Press menu, go to Settings 2 tab, and press sensor Cleaning: Manual, then OK.

Canon EOS Rebel XS - changing from optic viewfinder to LCD

Let's talk for a minute about sensor and the ISO values. XSi/450D has five ISO values you can choose: 100 (best image quality), 200, 400, 800, and 1600. Higher ISO increases the camera sensor's sensitivity to light, thus you can achieve faster shutter speeeds for a given lighting condition All Cameras >> Canon >> Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi SLR Digital Camera Sample I was all set to buy the 40D but the XSi's higher resolution and compact size made me change my mind. For me this camera is a creative workhouse that is a joy to travel and work with. Quite an improvement on my 400D. Bigger LCD. The EOS 450D (called EOS Rebel XSi in North America and EOS Kiss X2 in Japan) [1] is a 12.2-megapixel digital single-lens reflex camera that is part of the Canon EOS line of cameras. It is the successor to the EOS 400D/Digital Rebel XTi. It was announced on 23 January 2008 and released in March 2008 and April 2008 in North America

Brown Giraffe Walking on Brown Grass · Free Stock PhotoFree stock photo of beach, dark, dawn

Canon Rebel XSi Shutter & Aperture - YouTub

The Canon Rebel XSi is finally a more complete camera than any Rebel before it. Despite being part of the entry-level Rebel series, the XSi features spot-metering, a 3.5 FPS continuous drive with a deep buffer, depth-of-field preview and finally exposure-priority live-view with 100% frame coverage Canon U.S.A., Inc.'s EOS Rebel series of digital single lens reflex cameras have now redefined the gateway prowess and pro-ness of the DSLR category with the introduction of the line's new leader, the 12.2-megapixel EOS Rebel XSi camera. Incorporating a number of high-end functions and technology found in Canon's professional SLR models, the EOS Rebel XSi camera boasts an improved autofocus.

Solved: Canon Rebel XSI - Page 3 - Canon Communit

Canon 450D XSI with 70-200 f/2.8L @ ISO 400 _____ What's New? The list at the top of this page gives the basics. The XSi is a major step up from Rebel models that have come before, both in terms of features as well as resolution and image quality. Not that previous models were poor in the IQ department. They weren't The Digital Rebel XSi is Canon's latest contestant in the consumer DSLR market. It's aimed at the new DSLR user, or someone upgrading from an earlier Digital Rebel camera. Compared to the Canon EOS 40D, it's smaller, lighter and cheaper, though it lacks a few features of the EOS 40D such as an ISO 3200 setting, a read QCD, a top mounted LCD, as. (I am sure this will change.) If you are the proud owner of a Canon Rebel XSi (or XTi for that matter) you will find this DVD extremely helpful. I have taken a tremendous amount of time to explain the camera, its settings, functions and how to get the most out of it The Rebel XSi has all kinds of settings and different levels you can use based on your comfort level and expertise. There's everything from full automatic to full manual, and everything in between. If you are going to lay down the big bucks for a nice camera, though, I recommend you at least take the time to learn the basics of how to run it in. explore on a rainy day, Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi/450D For Dummies is your one-stop guide to setting up, working with, and making the most of your new Canon digital SLR camera. The Canon EOS T6i and T6s (known as the 760D and 750D outside of U.S.) are powerful new cameras intended for amateurs to semi-professionals who want to jump int

The Canon Rebel XSi is largely the same as the Nikon D60. In fact, up until a few days ago , both worth the entry-level dSLRs for their respective companies. There are a few differences, however Sep 20, 2010 The Rebel XS is a pretty convincing response - it does just about everything it needs to do, and everything it does, it does well. It can produce great images at any of its ISO settings and, viewed as a whole, makes a great first DSLR. › Read the full Canon Rebel XS Canon 500D T1i vs. 450D XSi. The closest competing camera in Canon's own lineup is the predecessor to the 500D: the Canon Rebel XSi 450D. The most notable differences include a jump in megapixels (from 12 to 15) and the addition of the movie mode on the 500D. Besides this, the two cameras are quite similar when you compare their other features Canon has a tendency to name a DSLR camera differently for different markets. For example, look at the camera in the photo. It's a very popular camera in the whole world. Canon is a Japanese camera manufacturer and in Japan this camera is marketed.. Bookmark File PDF Canon Printer Quick Fix Photoshop Elements 6 For Dummies If you're as excited as we are about the Rebel XSi/450D, you probably can't wait to start shooting. Canon EOS Digital Rebel XSi/450D For Dummies will show you how to make every shot count! Even if you're new to digital SLR cameras or are unfamiliar wit