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Assimilation efficiency (ae) is calculated as

Assimilation efficiency (AE%) of both captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) was assessed using non-assimilated indirect markers, manganese and lignin. AE%, measured using manganese, did not differ significantly from AE% assessed using lignin confirming the efficacy of the manganese approach Assimilation efficiencies (±95% CI) determined using mass balance calculations were 84 ± 4% for Cu and 85 ± 3% for Cd. The ratio method yields similar AE estimates calculated from the dry fish (and corrected tab-let) mass. Apparent assimilation efficiency was calculated as AE% = [1 - (C,/Cf) ] x 100, where C is the concentration or specific activity (ex-pressed on a dry mass basis) of the marker in the ingesta (i) or feces (f) (Kleiber 1975:260). Mean values of AE% were compared usin growth and reproduction is called assimilation efficiency. Herbivores assimilate between 15 and 80 percent of the plant material they ingest, depending on their physiology and the part of the plant that they eat. For example, herbivores that eat seeds and young vegetation high in energy have the highest assimilation efficiencies assimilation efficiency, Assimilation efficiency is the percentage of food energy taken into the guts of consumers in a trophic compartment (In) that is assimilated across the gut wall (A) and becomes available for incorporation into growth or to do work. The remainder is lost as feces and enters the base of the decomposer system

Ingestion efficiency, IE, can be calculated from the fraction of total radiotracer in the prey that was ingested by the predator. Some of the ingested tracer was subsequently re- Accuracy of estimates for assimilation effi- ciency (AE) depends on the extent to which i The efficiencies of energy intake are commonly expressed as digestive efficiency (DE) and assimilation efficiency (AE). Technically, DE and AE are calculated from the measured energy content of the ingested meal, faeces and excreted nitrogenous waste Start studying BIO 171 Exam 4 Learning Objectives Lecture 18. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

ecological efficiency = consumption energy assimilation efficiency net production efficiency ecological efficiency = (consumed energy/net production of the next lower trophic level) (assimilated energy/consumed energy) (net production energy/assimilated energy The assimilation efficiency (AE) = (I−E)/I × 100%, where I is the ingestion rate and E is the egestion (defecation) rate. How do you calculate assimilation rate? Plant Physiology and Development It is synonymous with the term net assimilation rate For this purpose, the filtration rate (FR), food assimilation (A) and assimilation efficiency (AE) of oysters from the Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz, Mexico, were examined under sublethal and environmentally realistic cadmium concentrations (95 and 170 micro gCd L(-1)) as the carbon assimilation efficiency. If a copepod is grazing exclusively on phytoplankton of a known C : Chl, and the animal's assimilation efficiency (AE%) is known, then the expected carbon to pheo- pigment ratio (C : Ph) of its fecal pellets can be calculated as AE% 0 C:Chl x 1 - - ( 100 > 0.6 Assimilation efficiency (Ae) was calculated by expressing A as a percentage of C. Gross (Ge) and net (Ne) production efficiencies were estimated expressing P as a percentage of C and A separately. Rates of feeding (Fr), assimilation (Ar), conversion (Cr) and metabolism (Mr) were determined by dividing C, A,

Costs, benefits, and fitness consequences of different

Assimilation Efficiency - Physiological Ecology and

Question: Trophic Efficiency Calculations Derive From Data Collected On Consumption Efficiency, Assimilation Efficiency, Net Production Efficiency, And Ecological Efficiency Lake Ecosystem Stream Ecosystem Energy Terrestrial Ecosystem 1,000 Net Production Available In Lower Trophic Level (J) Consumed Energy 1,000 400 250 650 260 450 100 Assimilated Energy 120. The assimilation eciency was calculated ac-cording to Conover (1966) as: AE (%) = (F-E) ([1-E] F)-1·100 is the ratio of organic/dry weight of the TPM; E is the same rate of the feces collected Properties that can be calculated for ecosystems in steady state: (Note that biomass refers to the amount of living matter) (EE), sometimes called consumption efficiency Assimilation Efficiency (AE) Production Efficiency (PE) I n B n P n R n A n D n P n-1 Dead Organic Matter Trophic Level n F n To detritus food web =!100 n n I A AE. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of amino acids by GWSS was calculated as AE = (amino acid in xylem fluid-amino acid in insect excreta) / (amino acid in xylem fluid). Means ± 1 standard error (n = 4) were calculated. Amino acid data were also subjected to analysis of variance with SAS general linear models (SAS 1999) ing rate, but Hemicordulia increased its efficiency through instars 12-14. When dragonfly larvae were pre-fed before experimentation, assimilation efficiency decreased in both species. INTRODUCTION An accurate knowledge of the ingestion and assimila-tion efficiency (AE) of species is one of the pre-requisites for understanding energy flow betwee

Determining metal assimilation efficiency in aquatic

From this, an assimilation efficiency can be calculated for each timed interval as: AE = Ca FR x SI x t x Cs, where AE = assimilation efficiency (%) Ca = mean concentration of chemical in the animal, taken as the mean concentration difference between feeders and nonfeeders (dpm/mg) SI = selectivity index, estimated as 6 t = exposure interval (h was calculated as the difference between net energy input and metabolic losses: G = C ×AE ×(1 - R SDA) - R (1) where consumed prey mass (C, μg dry mass per model time step) was reduced by an assimilation efficiency (AE) and metabolic losses (R) that were divided into several subcomponents to account for standard (R S)

The assimilation efficiency (AE) of prairie dogs on their natural diet of 34 percent forbs and 65 percent grasses was 71.8 percent. The higher AE in the wild population than in captive animals fed grasses is due to the presence of highly digestible forbs The zooplankton were exposed to radiotracers from both the aqueous and dietary phases for different duration, and then pulse-fed to the zebrafish for measurements of metal assimilation efficiency (AE). The calculated AEs were 3-8% for Cd, 2-39% for Cr, and 17-36% for Zn in the zebrafish The influx rate of Cu from the dissolved phase increased with dissolved Cu concentration, with a calculated uptake rate constant of 0.055 L/g/h. The assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu decreased significantly (from 92 to 16%) as the available food concentration increased, and the AE differed among the food types Figure S7. Assimilation efficiencies for sediment (AEs sed) and AC amendment (AE s AC) calculated for N. arenaceodentata considering the range of measured ingestion rates from 6.7 to 10.6 g/g dw per day

Assimilation Efficiency of Northern Fur Seals Determined

  1. mann et aI., 1992). Thus, the AE with respect to ingested particles must be measured to obtain reliable information about the relative role of different accumulation routes. Assimilation is defined as 'absorption of material from the gut' (Johannes and Satomi, 1967) and consequently, assimilation efficiency is the portion of compoun
  2. The calculated uptake rate constant of dioxins decreased with increasing trophic levels, whereas the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) was 28.5-57.6% in the copepods and 36.6-70.2% in the fish. The dietary AE was highly dependent on the food concentrations and food type
  3. Assimilation efficiency (Ae) was calculated as the ratio of Cap to irrigation water volume. There was a negative relationship (P<0.01) between Ae and irrigation water volume (mesic, r=-0.97; xeric, r=-0.98)
  4. calculated assimilation efficiency values for glucose increased from 50.2% to 78.6% over the Assimilation efficiency (AE) is an index of the proportion of an animal's Ingesta that is transferred from the gut lumen into its body; it is usually ex-pressed as a percentage. Assimilation (A) is most conveniently measured from th

Assimilation efficiency biology Britannic

Food assimilation efficiency (AE) was determined using the ratio method of Conover (1966). By this method, AE is defined as percentage of utilization (U') and was calculated as U' = ((F' - E')/(1-E') (F')) x 100 where F' is the ash-free dry weight : dry weight ratio (fraction of organi All the tests are applied with threshold values on the 95% confidence interval. The assimilation efficiency (AE) for estimating the data assimilation performance is also calculated (Yumimoto & Takemura, 2011). The AE is defined as follows Some studies use dry matter assimilation ef- ficiency (AE) as a measure of the digestive value derived from particular prey. This measure is easier to determine, being calculated solely from changes in an inert marker between fecal and food samples. Assimilation efficiency may provide a reasonabl Assimilation efficiency (AE) is defined as the proportion of ingested nutrients absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and available for maintenance functions (e.g., respiration, circulation. Abstract. Macronutrient (protein, lipids, and carbohydrates) assimilation efficiencies of wild birds have rarely been studied, but they may be particularly imp

The importance of transfer efficiencies in determining

Assimilation efficiency and toxicokinetics of 14C-lindane in the terrestrial isopod Porcellionides pruinosus: The role of isopods in degradation of persistent soil pollutants. By Antonio Nogueira. 74 ecotox 2002 11 481. By Amadeu Soares. Soil and Plant Diet Exposure Routes and Toxicokinetics of Lindane In a Terrestrial Isopod 3. Determination of the assimilation efficiency in fish 3.1. Assimilation efficiency of macromolecules by fish Since AE of a given element or compound is defined as its absorption minus its excretion, it could be calculated as the difference between its quantity ingested (quantity presents in the food) minus quantity egested (quantity in the. The assimilation efficiency (AE) of an organism is the percentage of total food eaten that is absorbed into the blood after digestion, and not lost as faeces. Calculate the assimilation efficiency (AE) of a snail that ate 4.0 g of food and produced 1.2 g of faeces

of the fifth instar larvae was calculated by adding daily consumption/larva. The mean faecal weight/larva was also calculated similarly. The above quantitative estimation of C was Assimilation Efficiency (AE) A C 100 Efficiency of conversion of ingested matter to body substance (ECI) P C X 10 Other measures of C conversion efficiency have been proposed (Fig. 1) (Sterner and Elser, 2002): (i) assimilation efficiency (AE = A / U = assimilation/uptake), (ii) net growth efficiency (NGE = G / A = net growth/assimilation), and (iii) gross growth efficiency (GGE = G / U = AE × NGE = net growth/uptake; see the last equality on the right.

The calculated Ag uptake rate constants increased by 3 to 16 times with increasing nitrate and ammonium concentration from 5.88 microM to 176 microM. The assimilation efficiency (AE) of Ag by the coastal copepod Acartia spinicauda was quantified under different ecological and chemical conditions of the diatom prey Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing. The whole body assimilation efficiency of radionuclide in fish (AE) could be estimated by taking into account sum of weighted assimilation efficiencies for different tissues: AE We have compared obtained AE for different radionuclides (Table 3) with data extracted from the literature. As we can see, the calculated AE value

Chemical absorption efficiency from the diet (AE, ED or α) Often the terms chemical absorption efficiency and assimilation efficiency are used inter-changeably; however, the terms describe separate processes. Assimilation refers to a process in which nutrients are absorbed and subsequently used for energy or incorporated into biomas Daily apparent energy assimilation efficiency (AE) was calculated as DEA divided by GEI, and was then squareroot transformed. Finally, for comparison, the data were converted to per gram individual body mass by dividing by the mean of the initial and final body mass on the day of experimentation. The above protocol was repeated for each diet.

Efficiencies of ingestion and assimilation by an

7.014 Handout PRODUCTIVITY: THE METABOLISM OF ECOSYSTEMS Ecologists use the term productivity to refer to the process through which an assemblage of organisms (e.g. a trophic level or ecosystem assimilates carbon. Primary producers (autotrophs) do this through photosynthesis; Secondary producers (heterotrophs) do it through the assimilation of the organic carbon in their food Assimilation Fish Species Food Source Duration of Experiment Comments Calculation of Assimilation Efficency (AE) Hg(II) MeHg Pentreath 1976 [1] 203Hg and 203MeHg 9% 87% Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) polychaete (Nereis diversicolor) 5 days AEs were calculated as the percent of initial dose retained at the end of experiment

AE = (F-E) [(1-E)·F]-1·100 where F is the weight of the organic matter of the food divided by the food dry weight and E is the weight of the organic matter of the feces divided by the feces dry weight. To calculate the assimilation efficiency (AE), samples were filtered through 4.5 cm-GFC fiberglass filters, previously incinerated a Elemental growth yield was calculated by comparing the elements per individual cell before and after 1 d incubation, AE N and AE P is the assimilation efficiency of C,. Assimilation (biology) In biology, assimilation (also bio-assimilation) is the combination of two processes to supply cells with nutrients. The first is the process of absorption of vitamins, minerals, and other chemicals from food within the gastrointestinal tract

Figure 4 shows the weighted contributions (Groemping, 2006) between iron assimilation efficiency and each driver calculated with our statistical analysis (α, β, γ, and δ from Equation 3). FIGURE 4. We now turn to changes in the iron assimilation efficiency (AE). mean values were worked out and calculated as per Waldbaur, (1968) using abbreviations as follows. C = FG -FR, Where FG = Food given, FR= Food remnant and C = Food consumed A = C -F, Where C = Food consumed, F = Fecal matter egested and A = Food Assimilated Assimilation efficiency AE (%) = × 100 Growth Rate GR = G / T Assimilation efficiency reflects the capacity of an organism to metabolize the nutrients present in ingested food and is an important factor in its energy balance (Calow 1985). Changes in assimilation efficiency have been described in ectotherms, allowing them to utilize different types of foods more efficiently (Horn 1989, Benavides el al. 1994)

The AE, calculated as the % of metals retained after 60 h of depuration, was highest for Zn (ranging from 17 to 50% in the mussels and from 11 to 53% in the clams) (Table 1). Cr was the least assimilated metal, with AE ranging from 5 to 20% in the mussels and from 4 to 20% in the clams. Assimilation of Cd was intermediate between Cr and Zn The assimilation efficiency (AE) of an organism is the percentage of total food eaten that is absorbed into the blood after digestion, and not lost as faeces. Carnivores tend to have an AE of 80%, while most leaf-eating herbivores have a

Barnacles are known to accumulate Zn to a phenomenal concentration, but physiological processes governing Zn accumulation are poorly defined. We determined the assimilation efficiency and efflux rate constant of Zn in barnacles (Balanus amphitrite) using radiotracer technique. Assimilation efficiency of Zn from ingested food ranged between 76 and 87% for the diatom diets and between 86 and 98%. AE, AR and PE do require an unfertilized control to be calculated. While AE measures the efficiency to redirect applied nitrogen to the grains, AR defines the efficiency to capture N from the soil. PE puts the N uptake into relationship with the outcome of grain Nitrogen uptake, assimilation and distribution

The effect of temperature on digestive and assimilation

  1. ments of respiration, ingestion, assimilation, development, and body mass at differ-ent temperatures and from different lakes. In common with all such bioenergetic or mass balance models, the accounting for tissue mass is set by the magnitudes of gains and losses reported as ingestion, egestion, and respiration
  2. Assimilation efficiency (AE), which is defined as the fraction of the adsorbed products that is incorporated into the body tissue [14], is an important parameter in understanding and Assimilation efficiency was calculated as the fraction of the remaining body burden at upon complete egestion, which was estimated to be 4 hr
  3. Mice AE (assimilation efficiency) = 20% Mice PE (production efficiency) =10% Ferret EE (exploitation efficiency) = 50% Ferret AE = 80% Ferret PE = 10% While it is possible to calculate flux (as we did above), we do not know how big the ferret biomass pool is. Therefore, we can not calculate MRT given only the information on the previous page
  4. The assimilation efficiency of Bufo spinulosus tadpoles from four localities in Chile was evaluated for two different temperatures (15 and 25 oC) and two different diets (low nutritional quality diet (LQD): 22.28 mg g N-1; high nutritional quality diet (HQD): 47.53 mg g N) using ash as a marker of digestion. Results showe

AE values can be used as an indicator of aerosol size, with smaller values generally corresponding to larger aerosols, such as dust. The VIIRS AE values are calculated based on the 488- and 670-nm optical depths over land and the 550- and 865-nm optical depths over the ocean Rearranging, growth is expressed as P = I x AE - (R m + R g) or P = (F x C x AE) - (R m + R g), where AE = (I - F)/ I = assimilation efficiency, F = filtration rate, and C = algal concentration. In the individual bivalve growth depends on the quantity (C) and quality of suspended food particles including different species of algae, ciliates and. are calculated using the First-Order Perturbation Equation. efficiency of 252Cf transmutation. Experimental Data Assimilation. Monte Carlo radiation transport M&S tools are extremely high fidelity, relying mostly on first principle assumptions Nitrogen use efficiency in system level of crops is usually expressed by agronomic efficiency (AE) nitrogen assimilation than the inbred lines. use efficiency (PNUE) was calculated as the. Choose the country or region of application of the product. Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrai

and straw was calculated as the product of the N and S content and grain and straw yield of spring wheat, respectively. The efficiency of fertilization and utilization of nitrogen and S by the spring wheat was calculated for average samples as follows: A. Agronomic efficiency (AE N or S) expressed in kg/kg coupled model , assimilation 1. INTRODUCTION The crop productivity is largely determined by the amount of intercepted solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis process (which means the conversion efficiency of intercepted energy to carbohydrates )[1]. The Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiatio The assimilation efficiency of MeHg (AE, the proportion of ingested Me 203 Hg assimilated into tissue) was calculated as the y-intercept of the regression between the natural log of the percent Me 203 Hg retained in Daphnia and time for the slowly exchanging pool during the 5-d depuration period DPPH rem%, and antiradical efficiency AE ex-pressed in dm 3/( μmol · s) were determined. Statistical analysis of the results The mean results of the readings (n = 6) as well as the standard deviation were calculated in the Microsoft Excel 2013 program. The significance of differences concerning the examined features wa Carbon fixation or сarbon assimilation is the process by which inorganic carbon (particularly in the form of carbon dioxide) is converted to organic compounds by living organisms. The compounds are then used to store energy and as structure for other biomolecules.Carbon is primarily fixed through photosynthesis, but some organisms use a process called chemosynthesis in the absence of sunlight

BIO 171 Exam 4 Learning Objectives Lecture 18 Flashcards

The performance achieved by SNAM Société Nouvelle d'Affinage des Métaux (New Metals Refining Company) reaches 70% efficiency of recycled mass for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles and 84% for Ni-MH batteries in hybrid vehicles. These rates are well above the thresholds of European regulations, which require 50% material recycling nitrogen retention, AE values decreased to 69.1% for light-fish, 68.0% for squid, and 67.5% for Antarctic krill. Differences in AE for different prey types may result from differential nitrogen content of the prey tissue. Assimilation efficiency values for fish and squid of Apparent recovery and N use efficiency. Nitrogen use efficiency was calculated at harvest and is defined as N accumulation in plants, divided by the total amount of N fertilizer applied. The highest NUE of 12.05% (spring) and 32.38% (fall) were recorded when the lowest rate of 150 lb/acre was applied Bioenergetics and reproductive efficiency ofA. crenulata 507 Overall rates were calculated by dividing the sum of products of the respective rates and the duration for the different life stage by the total number of days of the feeding period as given below: O 11 C Sum of production of Cr and duration for each instar/stage vera r=. . (8 232 Psyche [September utilization and efficiency. Relationships between manyof these terms are discussed by Kozlovsky (I968) and Waldbau,er (I968). As an index of digestibility the ratio of the amount of food assimilated to the amount of food ingested, referred to as the 'Assimilation Efficiency' (Odum, 971 or the 'Coefficient of Di- gestibility' (Waldbauer 964, I968, House I965), was.

Ecology Chapter 20 Flashcards Quizle

  1. icit (Ae) were calculated for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor ( L. ) Moench ) and maize (Zea mays). De- creased RUE was associated with increased Ae in well-watered conditions, explaining a large portion of the RUE variability. Effects of Ae should be considered when the RUE concept is used to estimate biomass accumulation
  2. ed by the ratio -, which measures the relative speeds at which sugar is being fermented and assimilated. Substituting values ofy and (x +3>) from equations (3) and (6), 47-6 (8) /_4716_\ Yield of yeast calculated on the quantity of total sugar used is given % ^s +0.
  3. The nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), in terms of agronomic efficiency (AE), was calculated as per the following formula and reported as kg grain/kg nutrient (NPK) applied. where is grain yield (kg ha −1) in fertilized plot; is grain yield (kg ha −1) in control plot; is nutrient (N + P 2 O 5 + K 2 O) applied (kg ha −1). 3. Results and Discussio
  4. g forth from both the European Union and the United States government (Assessment List for Trustworthy Artificial Intelligence [ALTAI], and mandate E.O. 13 960 of 3 December 2020)
  5. The photosynthetic electron transfer rate (ETR) (a proxy of the carbon assimilation capacity (Maxwell & Johnson, 2000)) was calculated as (Fm′ − Fs)/Fm′ × PFD, where Fm′ and Fs are the fluorescence intensities measured after exposure to a saturating pulse and in steady state, respectively, in light-acclimated cells and PFD.
  6. ing the organic and inorganic content of the food and feces following the ratio method of Conover ().Representative samples of each diet mixture (ca. 15 mg; three replicates) were collected during the experiment, and the AE was calculated for each specimen by collecting feces (4-10 mg) from the top of the sediment using glass pipettes

How do you calculate assimilation? - Colors-NewYork

  1. Water use efficiency in the region was analyzed by considering economic water productivities of cr ops, calculated by dividing the producer price (US$/ton) by the WF of the product (m 3/ton), per product category. Data on producer price per crop were obtained from FAO [16]. Additionally, we calculated the economic return of exporte
  2. Abstract. A portion of globally generated surface and groundwater resources evaporates from wetlands, waterbodies and irrigated areas. This secondary evaporation of blue water directly affects the remaining water resources available for ecosystems and human use. At the global scale, a lack of detailed water balance studies and direct observations limits our understanding of the magnitude.
  3. Beam bending is computed by the 4/3 Earth radius approximation as a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency for applications in ensemble data assimilation (Zeng, 2013). Measurements are simulated for each radar of the DWD radar network for plan position indicators (PPI) at ten elevation angles ranging from 0.5° to 25°
  4. The slope was used to calculate the efficiency, Efficiency = 10 (1/slope). The average efficiency for all quantitative PCR primers in this study was 1.90 ± 0.023 (SD), close to the theoretical value of 2. The primers used in this study are given in Table 1
  5. Black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP)-forested peatlands are widespread ecosystems in boreal North America in which peat accumulation, known as the paludification process, has been shown to induce forest growth decline. The continuously evolving environmental conditions (e.g., water table rise, increasing peat thickness) in paludified forests may require tree growth mechanism adjustments.
  6. The consumption rate was calculated as the difference between the initial dry weight of the leaf, propagule, or algae and the final dry weight of the uneaten materials. In order to accurately calculate consumption rates, all food-types measurements were adjusted for weight loss due to leaching. The assimilation efficiency (AE) of P. bidens.
  7. Diapausal copepods produce pellets with higher C: Ph ratios (24-33) and yield lower calculated AE % (46%), suggesting reduced digestive enzyme activities at this time. On the basis of measure-ments of field phytoplankton C: Chl and estimates of field copepod assimilation efficiencies, the C: Ph ratio of fecal pellets from exclusively.

Filtration rate, assimilation and assimilation efficiency

  1. An example of the importance of including orts in measurements of food intake comes from lines of mice selected for high and low food intake. 17 Including or excluding orts can also impact on calculations of assimilation efficiency. 13 In a literature search using the search terms 'food intake' and 'mouse' or 'rat' in the.
  2. For daily mean ASRF simulation, the averaged aerosol parameters (i.e., AOD, SSA, AE, and g) obtained from the daytime radiometer observations were used as alternatives of the daily mean aerosol properties. The daily mean aerosol radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated by taking the average of the 24 instantaneous values on an hourly basis
  3. Welcome to Dubai Carbon. In a world where resource efficiency is driving mitigation and adaption strategies to climate change, Dubai Carbon is at the forefront of change, helping private and public sector benchmark their efforts against global standards to ensure that business strategies are climate-resilient and take the full advantage of environmental finance
  4. The mean assimilation efficiency for diatoms was about 55% as measured by the dual—label technique. Mean ingestion rates of diatoms for Hydropsyche in 3 experiments were 31.3, 31.0 and 29.2 mg DW/mg DW/h, respectively; low values (3 mg DW/mg DW/h) from a 4th experiment were associated with high concentrations of green algae
  5. Assimilation efficiency Base 1 Life ASS_EFFIC_LOW_O2 Assimilation efficiency @ low O2 Base 1 Life AE activation energy for the Autotrophs C specific decay (death) Rate Base 1 SedimentQuality A Cartesian Coordinate which is calculated downwards from the Digital Terrain (MOHID Land only) FIXSEDIMENT Fixed Sediment coordinate
  6. Energy flow is the flow of energy through living things within an ecosystem. All living organisms can be organized into producers and consumers, and those producers and consumers can further be organized into a food chain. Each of the levels within the food chain is a trophic level. In order to more efficiently show the quantity of organisms at each trophic level, these food chains are then.
  7. ated ( > 60 %) by secondary inorganic aerosol, organic aerosol, and fine dust, as well as.

Carbon: pheopigment ratios of zooplankton fecal pellets as

Crop production has a large impact on the nitrogen (N) cycle, with consequences to climate, environment, and public health. Designing better N management will require indicators that accurately reflect the complexities of N cycling and provide biological meaning. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is an established metric used to benchmark N management. There are numerous approaches to calculate. C4 plants such as maize, sorghum, and sugarcane, approximately have 50% higher photosynthesis efficiency than those of C3 plants such as rice, wheat, and potato [].This is because the different mechanism of carbon fixation by the two types of photosynthesis, as illustrated in Figure 1.C3 photosynthesis only uses the Calvin cycle for fixing CO 2 catalyzed by ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate. Background It is known that hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has stronger adaptability to many stressful environments than its tetraploid wheat progenitor. However, the physiological basis and evolutionary course to acquire these enhanced adaptabilities by common wheat remain understudied. Here, we aimed to investigate whether and by what means tolerance to low-nitrogen manifested. The global cereal N use efficiency was about 33%, and an increase in 1% NUE was calculated to be worth US$234 million (Magen and Nosov, 2008). Role of K in enhancing NUE Adequate and balanced application of fertilizer nutrients is one of the most common practices for improving the efficiency of N fertilizer and is equally effective in both. The anthropogenic increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) is impacting carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland and other terrestrial biomes. Plant canopy stomatal conductance is a key player in these coupled cycles: it is a physiological control of vegetation water use efficiency (the ratio of C gain by photosynthesis to water loss by transpiration), and it responds to.