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# Weber number surface tension

The Weber Number is the ratio between the inertial force and the surface tension force and the Weber number indicates whether the kinetic or the surface tension energy is dominant. It can be expressed as We = ρ v2 l / σ (1 Definition The dimensionless Weber number represents the ratio of disruptive hydrodynamic forces to the stabilizing surface tension force. Hence, the Weber number indicates whether the kinetic or the surface tension energy is dominant. For a spherical droplet the Weber number can be derived using the kinetic energy compared to the surface energy The Weber number (We) is a common dimensionless number used in fluid mechanics. It relates the inertial force acting on a fluid to the forces arising from its surface tension. This number is used when analyzing the interface between two different fluids

In this case the Weber number is defined as the ratio of the momentum in the vapor layer divided by the surface tension force restraining the liquid, where the characteristic length is the surface pore size The Weber number We expresses the ratio between these two forces: If the deforming force increases due to a higher speed or longer process length, the drops of a spray disperse more easily and drops of oil in an aqueous environment are split apart more easily. A high surface or interfacial tension counteracts this process Calculate Weber Number. W = Weber Number. r = Density. v = Velocity. L = Length. s = Surface Tension. Enter your values: Density: Kilogram / Meter^3 Gram / Centimeter^3 Pound / Foot^3 Gram / Meter^3 Milligram / Liter

Weber Number - Density, Velocity, Surface Tension formula. Fluid Mechanics formulas list online tension forces is evaluated by the Weber number (We) (We = V2 p I / o where V is the average velocity of the fluid system, p is fluid density, / is a length usually taken as average depth (d) and o is surface tension)

Surface tension is the energy required to stretch a unit change of surface area - and the surface tension will form a drop of liquid to a sphere since the sphere offers the smallest area for a definite volume. Surface tension can be defined as σ = Fs / l (1 The Weber number (We) can be thought of as a measure of the relative importance of the fluid's inertia compared to its surface tension : $$\mathrm{We} = \frac{\rho v^2 l}{\sigma}$$ So assuming a droplet is moving through air, the droplet is the object and the air is the fluid Surface tension varies from 0.0461 N/m to 0.0685 N/m, respectively. Finotello et al. (2017) obtain an equation for the transition boundary between coalescence and reflexive separation for the milk emulsion, and determine the critical values of the Weber number and dimensionless linear parameter for these compositions This ratio of the disrupting aerodynamic force to the surface tension force is known as the Weber number (We). Experimentally, it was found that the minimum value of the Weber number needed for droplet breakup to happen is We = 11±2. It is not as though the droplet breakup does not happen for We < 11 Dimensionless value calculator solving for surface tension given Weber number, density, velocity and characteristic lengt

### Weber Number - Engineering ToolBo

Weber number is the ratio of inertial force to the surface tension force = Weber Number, (6) Figure 1: A ﬂuid jet extruded from an oriﬁce of radiusaaccelerates under the inﬂuence of gravity.Its shape is inﬂuenced both by the gravitational accelerationgand the surface tensionσ. Now ﬂux conservation requires tha Whenever atomization occurs under conditions where surface tension is important, the Weber Number is a dimensionless parameter for correlating drop size data. From a practical standpoint viscosity is an important liquid property The importance of surface tension relative to gravity and viscous stresses is prescribed by therelative magnitudes of the Weber, Froude and Reynolds numbers. In the highRelimit of interest,the normal force balance requires that the dynamic pressure be balanced by either gravitational orcurvature stresses, the relative magnitudes of which are prescibed by the Bond number

Weber number is less than 1 when surface tension is predominant. It happens when the curvature of the liquid surface is small compared to its depth. This can be seen in different situations such as the flow of blood in veins and arteries, atomization of liquids, capillary flow of water in soils, thin layers of fluid passing over surface, etc. 4 The Weber number is the ratio of inertial forces within the inner fluid to the surface tension forces. Figure 5: Dependence of dripping/jetting behavior on capillary number of the outer fluid and Weber number of the inner fluid for co-flow devices The Weber number is a ratio of the density, volumetric flow rate and fluid flow rate to surface tension forces. The fluid flow rate is also termed the impingement speed of the fluid - the higher the fluid falls the faster the speed By using the techniques developed for generating high-speed droplets, we have systematically investigated binary droplet collision when the Weber number (We) was increased from the range usually tested in previous studies on the order of 10 to a much larger value of about 5100 for water (a droplet at 23 m/s with a diameter of 0.7 mm)

Capillary number. In fluid dynamics, the capillary number ( Ca) is a dimensionless quantity representing the relative effect of viscous drag forces versus surface tension forces acting across an interface between a liquid and a gas, or between two immiscible liquids. For example, an air bubble in a liquid flow tends to be deformed by the. For a certain fluid flow problem it is known that both the Froude number and the Weber number are important dimensionless parameters. If the problem is to be studied by using a 1:15 scale model, determine the required surface tension scale model if the density scale is equal to 1. The model and the prototype operate in the same gravitational field On a hydrophobic surface, the drop rebound and column fracture are inhibited by the presence of the surface-active agent. Besides reagent bulk properties, dynamic surface tension, surface wettability, and droplet Weber number govern the transient impact-spreading-recoil phenomena drop Weber number, Reynolds number, and Ohn-sorge number have been derived [1-7]. It is recog-nized that in addition to liquid properties (ρ, σ, μ) and drop velocity, surface energy (hydrophobic or hydro-philic nature of the substrate), interfacial tension, the dynamic contact angle variation, play important rol

Surface Tension is an application that calculates the Weber number. Surface Tension-Calculation. by Connor Pickerin Compared to plainwall microchannels, enhanced surface rewetting and CHF are owing to higher surface tension force at liquid-vapor interface and Capillary dominance resulting from silicon nanowires. Whereas, low Weber number in silicon nanowire helps maintaining uniform and stable thin ﬁlm and improves heat transfer performances Weber Number (We): The dimensionless parameter associated with surface tension effects is the Weber number, and it is defined as We = ρV 2 L/σ where σ is the surface tension. The Weber number denotes the ratio of the inertial forces to surface tension forces

The Weber Number is a dimensionless value useful for analyzing fluid flows where there is an interface between two different fluids. The Weber Number is the ratio between the inertial force and the surface tension force and the Weber number indica.. For the case where the lower cavity is much smaller than the upper one, when the Weber number is less than or equal to 20, during the collapse phase, surface tension will have substantial effects on the behavior of the lower cavity such as change the form or the direction of its liquid jet if the Bjerknes forces to the lower cavity induced by.

The normal drop impact is usually described by several dimensionless criteria, namely, the Weber number, characterizing the ratio between inertia and surface tension (W e = ρ U 0 2 D 0 / σ L A); the Reynolds number, characterizing the ratio between the inertial and viscous forces (R e = ρ U 0 D 0 / μ); the Ohnesorge number that relates the. Since Weber number is the ratio of hydrodynamic force to surface tension force, we have the conclusion that when Re >> 1, the contact angle effects can be neglected because of We >> 1 at rotating side. But it can't be neglected near stationary plate because Reynolds number and Weber number are nearly zero ### Weber Number SpringerLin

1. e the required surface tension scale if the density scale is equal to 1
2. é Q 6/ ê ;, and parameters for surface conditions. The rearrangement of Reynolds number and Weber number gives the Ohnesorge number ( 1 D L : 9 A ;/ 6/ ;. According to Shiaffino and Sonin [6,8], the droplet impact behavior can be classified into four regimes characterized by Weber number as a driving force and Ohnesorg
3. Ohnesorge Number. The Ohnesorge number is a dimensionless constant that describes the tendency for a drop to either stay together or fly apart, by comparing viscous forces with inertial and surface tension forces. For inkjet the key variables are viscosity η, scale length (e.g. nozzle diameter) l, density ρ and surface tension σ. The formula is
4. ator is the surface tension. Generally, it is known that if W e is less than one, the influence of surface tension is strong. First, we exa
5. The density and surface tension coefficient of diesel oil were used to define the Weber number for the correlation of the experimental data. The reasons for using diesel oil properties for the definition of the Weber number are as follows
6. The Weber number denotes the ratio of the inertial forces to surface tension forces. The Weber number becomes an important parameter when dealing with applications involve two fluid interfaces such as the flow of thin films of liquid and bubble formation. Weber model law is the law in which models are based on Weber's number, which is the.
7. — The Weber number (surface tension) effect is clearly demonstrated in tests run with nearly constant Froude numbers (5.09 to 5.28) at three different Weber numbers. The trend is similar to that seen in Figure 12 for a slightly lower range of Froud Keywords: free surface, potential flow, jet flow, Weber number, surface tension. 1. Introduction We consider a steady two-dimensional channel flow against a wall of semi infinite length, making an angleβ with the horizontal (fig.1(a)). The fluid is assumed to be inviscid, incompressible and the flow is irrotational. If we take th For large $$Re$$ and surface tension involve problem The dimensional parameters that were used in the construction of the dimensionless parameters in Table 9.8 are the characteristics of the system. Therefore there are several definition of Reynolds number

### Weber number - Chemepedi

The Weber number is the dimension-less parameter that relates the order of magnitude of the inertial (shear) forces to that of the surface-tension forces. It is given by: We = ρdV 2/σ (2) where V is the velocity of the droplet and σ is the interfacial tension. The critical value of the Weber number in liquid-liquid systems has been re The Weber number is a dimensionless number in fluid mechanics that is often useful in analysing fluid flows where there is an interface between two different fluids, especially for multiphase flows with strongly curved surfaces. It can be thought of as a measure of the relative importance of the fluid's inertia compared to its surface tension.The quantity is useful in analyzing thin film flows. When Surface Tension Effects Are Important. The importance of surface tension effects is determined based on the value of two dimensionless quantities: the Reynolds number, Re, and the capillary number, Ca; or the Reynolds number, Re, and the Weber number, We. For Re , the quantity of interest is the capillary number Looking for Weber number 3? Find out information about Weber number 3. A dimensionless number used in interfacial area determination in distillation equipment, equal to the surface tension divided by the product of the liquid... Explanation of Weber number the shape of the apex and the Weber number characterizing the strength of the surface tension and is de ned by = ˆU2L T (2.1) where Tis the surface tension and ˆis the density of the uid. When the e ects of surface tension and gravity gare neglected, the classical exact solution can be found via the hodograph transformation Birkho . If the.

### Weber number - Wikipedi

• We = Weber Number /9 = density u = velocity r =jet radius cy= surface tension f= free energy = constant 1 13= constant 2 C = phase distrubution _ =barrier function Surface tension can be expressed as a free energy field. The expression for this energy in our formulation is given b
• Jul 10,2021 - Select the correct statementa)Weber's number is the ratio of inertia force to elastic force.b)Weber's number is the ratio of gravity force to surface tension force.c)Weber's number is the ratio of viscous force to pressure force.d)Weber's number is the ratio of inertia force to surface tension force.Correct answer is option 'D'
• The surface tension and viscosity of the surrogate fuels are altered from 72 to 30 mN/m and 1.1 to 1.6 mNs/m2, respectively. Weber number effects on all liquids and Reynolds numbers: (a).
• The nondimensionalization of the governing equations of fluid flow is important for both theoretical and computational reasons. Nondimensional scaling provides a method for developing dimensionless groups that can provide physical insight into the importance of various terms in the system of governing equations
• for the Weber number, We = r U. 2. D / s ~1 0. We confirm that the main force driving propulsion is the capillary force resulting from surface tension, and that interface relaxation makes a.
• values of the Weber number and the Froude number. Mathematics Subject Classification: 76B07; 76D45; 76M40 Keywords: free surface flow, surface tension, gravity, series truncation 1. Introduction Free surface flows past a bluff obstacle in the presence of gravity and surface tension are difficult to compute
• J. Fluid Mech. (1989), vol. 203, pp. 14S171 Printed in Great Britain 149 Surface-tension effects in the contact of liquid surfaces By HASAN N. OGUZ AND ANDREA PROSPERETTI Department of Mechanical Engineering, The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA (Received 8 June 1988 and in revised form 9 November 1988) The process by which two surfaces of the same liquid establish contact, as.

These parameters include impact Weber number (through varying the surface tension and impingement velocity), the size ratio of the droplet to the solid surface, and the surface contact angle. According to the findings, the maximum spreading diameter increases with the impact velocity, with an increase of the sphere diameter, with a lower. The surface tension of aqueous Triton X-100 solution varies from that of pure water to nearly that of ethanol. As such the comparison of transient droplet-impact-spreading-recoil behavior of the three liquids, or their temporal variations of the spread and the flattening factor, provides a basis for understanding the role of dynamic surface. By comparing sessile droplet size with Capillary length, we can know about it shape. If h less than L then droplet shape is spherical Surface tension of viscous biopolymer solutions measured using the du Nouy ring method and the drop weight methods. By Boon-Beng Lee. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas : a critical review. By rahmath abdulla. Buoyancy-driven drop generation via microchannel revisited

The Weber number (We) is a dimensionless number in fluid mechanics that is often useful in analysing fluid flows where there is an interface between two different fluids, especially for multiphase flows with strongly curved surfaces. New!!: Surface tension and Weber number · See more » Wettin The droplet size, the orientation of the air nozzle to the horizontal and fluid properties (surface tension and viscosity) are varied to study different breakup modes. We found that droplet possessing initial momentum before entering the continuous air stream exhibits a variation in the required Weber number for the vibrational mode to the bag. Free surface flow. Weber Number. We = ρV 2 L/σ . Inertial/ Surface tension. Free surface flow . Pipe flow (D) - Reynolds number (1) The flow in a circular pipe is. Laminar Flow: Re ≤ 2300; Transitional flow: 2300 ≤ Re ≤ 4000; Turbulent flow: Re ≥ 4000 . Heat convection (E) - Nusselt number (2 Total drag forces in interfacial and airborne flight do converge to comparable values at speeds above ∼3c min, as Weber numbers increase and the relative dominance of surface tension decreases (Sun and Keller, 2001). However, this is well above the terminal velocities observed for interfacial flight Froude number (Fr): It is defined as the ratio of inertia force to gravity force. $$Fr = \frac{V}{{\sqrt {gL} }}$$ Weber number (We): It is defined as the ratio of the inertia force to surface tension force. $$We = \frac{{\rho {V^2}l}}{\sigma }$$ Mach number (M): It is defined as the ratio of inertia force to compressibility force

### Weber number KRÜSS Scientifi

The corresponding Weber number, We = ρ l U 0 2 R 2 / γ, compares fluid inertia and surface tension, where ρ l = 770 kg/m 3 is the density of the hexadecane and γ = 27.5 mN/m is the surface tension. In our experiments, the Weber number ranges from 0.02 to 9 and Physical Chemistry textbooks a few- pages are' used to describe' surface tension. Some textbooks, with a section on dimensional, analysis will de-.• rive the dimensionless.Weber .Number which - includes surface tension as , one of its variables when analysing a flow problem An Optimum Method of Capturing Interface and a Threshold Weber Number for Inclusion of Surface Tension Force in Simulation of Nozzle Internal Flow in Pressure Swirl Atomizers. Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Volume 7: Fluids and Heat Transfer, Parts A, B, C, and D. Houston, Texas, USA The unit of surface tension is: m 2 /sec; N/m 2; N/m; None of these; Ans: (3) Surface tension on a liquid droplet is ____ (where d is the diameter of the droplet and σ is the surface tension.) Which of the following is the Weber number? Inertia force / gravitational force; Inertia force / surface tension; Gravitational force / surface.

### Weber Number Calculators - Weber Number, Velocity, Length

• The effects of surface tension and gravity on the shape of the free surface are discussed, and solution diagrams for all flow regimes are presented. The problem of steady two-dimensional flow of a fluid of finite depth over a successive obstacles is considered
• Weber's number is the ratio of inertia force to elastic force. B. Weber's number is the ratio of gravity force to surface tension force. C. Weber's number is the ratio of viscous force to pressure force. D. Weber's number is the ratio of inertia force to surface tension force
• The scientists maintained a constant Weber number (We ~ 1.5) for all six observed cases; where the parameter typically characterized the atomizing quality of a spray or the resulting droplet size.
• n-Hexane has an extremely low surface tension (17.9 mN m −1 (Supplementary Tables 1 and 2)) and, even for surfaces that demonstrate a high contact angle to n-hexane, it often remains adhered to.
• ar flow of water over a sphere, the drag coefficient C F is defined as C F = F / (ρU 2 D 2), where F is the drag force, ρ is the fluid density, U is the fluid velocity and D is the diameter of the sphere.The density of water is 1000 kg/m 3.When the diameter of the sphere is 100 mm and the fluid velocity is 2 m/s, the drag coefficient is 0.5

### Weber Number - Density, Velocity, Surface Tension Formula

• Due to their time-dependent surface tension, the addition of surface-active agents or surfactants to water for specific applications has made controlling the impact dynamics of these droplets a complex phenomenon. This work investigates the influence of the molecular weight, concentration, and ionic nature of the surfactants as well as the substrate surface characteristics on the impact.
• In contrast, Banks et al. (Reference Banks, Ajawara, Sanchez, Surti and Aguilar 2013) noted that the immiscible liquid pair FC-72 onto water required a far higher Weber number than the other miscible pairs studied for crown formation, despite having a lower viscosity and surface tension, which should rather promote splashing. They could not.
• Dimensionless value calculator solving for Weber number given density, velocity, characteristic length and surface tension surface tension (σ) Conversions: density (ρ) = 0 = 0. kilogram/meter^3 . velocity (v) = 0 = 0. meter/second . characteristic length (L) = 0 = 0. meter.
• surface tension, is a unique locomotion strategy well adapted for the environmental niche on the surface of water. Although previously We Weber number (defined as the ratio of inertial to capillary forces) x horizontal displacement along the interface x_ horizontal velocity along the interfac ### Surface tension in small hydraulic river models - the

Weber Number is a dimensionless number in fluid mechanics that is often useful in analysing fluid flows where there is an interface between two different fluids, especially for multiphase flows with strongly curved surfaces. Here we can calculate for Weber Number, Density, Velocity, Characteristic Length, Viscosity Finally, using an analysis based on a critical Weber number, the actual time average of surface tension was estimated at an axial location of 1.5× the intact length downstream from the nozzle exit, and an overall profile of surface tension as a function of axial location was proposed ### Surface Tension - Engineering ToolBo

The Weber number We was calculated by substituting ethanol values for density and surface tension, 19) while the ideal eigenfrequency ω 0 was calculated using the surface tension and the density of the mixed solution. For ethanol-water droplet collision, the oscillation frequency increases slower than the like-droplet collision The Weber number based on air density is calculated by where is the density of air, and is the surface tension of water. Our experiment was conducted at room temperature. The flow conditions and the values of related parameters in our experiment are presented in Table 1 ### Which paramteres in the Weber number belong to the object

Ratio of inertial forces to surface tension forces is called the _____ number. a) Euler b) Froude c) Mach d) Weber can be predicted from the Weber number (which gives the competition between fluid inertia and surface tension) and thegeometricalpropertiesof thespraynozzle.Our findings allow one to directly calculate the dropsize as a function of all of these parameters. In addition, the size distribution is foundto be mostly universal, implying that all.

### Influence of viscosity, surface and interfacial tensions

1. 1) The Weber number can be used to estimate (A) ratio of inertial and surface tension forces (B) ratio of inertia and compressibility forces (C) ratio of inertial and centrifugal bites (D) ratio of pressure and surface tension forces. 2) _____ number in mass transfer corresponds to Nusselt number in heat transfer and _____ number to Prandtl number
2. ates over the viscous force in the micro- and nanoscale
3. The Weber number, W = ρ V 2 R/γ, compares the kinetic and surface energies of the drop, where ρ and γ are the liquid density and surface tension, respectively
4. Weber Number: It is the ratio of inertial forces acting on the fluid to the surface tension acting forces. 'D' is characteristic length, fluid density, fluid velocity and is surface tension acting on the fluid
5. number. Rearranging equation 3, If, in the original array of variables, the surface tension of the fluid had been included as one of the variables influencing the flow pattern, the Weber number would have been produced as an additional dimensionless ratio. Except when the head is ver
6. surface tension and viscosity are small and it is possible to avoid scale effects. In spillways, Reynolds number must be greater than 1×105 and Weber number must be greater than 500 so that viscosity and surface tension effects are neglected (Fais and Genovez, 2008). The conventional ogee spillway equation is written as follows

### The Breakup of a Liquid Droplet

1. Surface tension effects are investigated by progres- sively reducing the length scale, while keeping Froude and Reynolds number constant. Different flow regimes are recovered, ranging from intense plunging jet, even- tually resulting in large amount of entrapped air, up to a micro-breaker, in which case air entrapment is sup- pressed and the.
2. Ohnesorge Number. Ohnesorge number is proportional to { (viscous force) / (sqrt (inertial force . surface tension force)) } and is used in momentum transfer in general and atomization calculations in particular. It is equivalent to (SQRT (We) / Re). It is normally defined in the following form
3. • W≡ e = Weber number ∼ inertial forces /ρ surface tension forces • Some SP's used in hydrodynamics (the table is not exhaustive): SP Deﬁnition Reynold's number R e UL ν ∼ inertia viscous Froude number F r U2 gL ∼ inertia gravity Euler number E u po 1 2 ρU2 ∼ pressure inertia Cavitation number σ po−pv 1 2 ρU2 ∼.
4. Weber number for the flow for each of three different orifice shapes. These shapes include an ellipse, a square, and an equilateral triangle. We discuss these results in 35, with special emphasis on the effects of surface tension on the cross-section shape and waves on the surface of the jet. 2. Formulation of the proble
5. We consider the critical Weber number (Wec ˆV2 0 D=˙) at which the transition from dripping to jetting occurs when a Newtonian liquid of density ˆand surface tension ˙is injected with a velocity V0 through a tube of diameter Ddownward into stagnant air, under gravity g. We extend Taylor's (1959) model for the recession speed of a fre
6. fined using the water Weber number, and assimilated as the probabilities. The dimensionless water Weber number is computed as follow: ������������= ������ ²������ ������  where ������ is the liquid density, is the droplet velocity before impact, ������ is the drop-let diameter and ������ is the water surface tension in MKS system of units. The Weber
7. The surface tension modifies the dynamic free-surface condition and its effect depends on the dimensionless Weber number. The Euler equations are filtered according to the LWS formulation and solved numerically by a spectral method and a fractional-time-step scheme

### Weber Number Equations Formulas Calculator - Surface Tensio

surface tension acts as a stabilizing force and imposes a lower cut-oﬀ for the waves which can grow (see Chandrasekhar 1961). This cut-oﬀ is given by a critical Weber number (Weber 1931; Chandrasekhar 1961). More speciﬁc theoretical models of the break-up of liquid sheets and jets in a gas stream have been developed subsequentl Red circles, blue squares, and green triangles represent successful antibubble formation, insufficient deformation of the bulk liquid surface, and failures due to early drainage of air in the gap, respectively. (a) The boundary for summative Weber number is found to be ∼3 The motion at low Reynolds numbers of a liquid drop in a quiescent unbounded liquid due to a surface tension gradient acting on the interface of the two liquids is investigated by an asymptotic analysis. At small (less than unity) values of Weber number we find that the drop deformations become proportional to the square of the values of the.

### Dimensionless Numbers Used In Fluid Mechanics - mech4stud

both gravity and surface tension, is then undertaken. Analytical the results obtained by present method are found to agree very closely with experiments. The experiments also show that, in low Weber number situations, contact angle at the exit plane can dominate the early relaxation of the exit profile Jul 01,2021 - Square root of the ratio of inertia force to the surface tension force is known asa)Reynold's numberb)Froude's numberc)Weber's numberd)None of the aboveCorrect answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer? | EduRev Civil Engineering (CE) Question is disucussed on EduRev Study Group by 184 Civil Engineering (CE) Students out the equation for Weber number. (b) A model with a length scale of 1/4 and a fluid density scale of 2.0 is to be designed to study the mean velocity Vat upstream. Find the scale ratios for velocity, viscosity, and surface tension. Free surface V La—I CD Bond number, Bo, is a dimensionless group which arises from the analysis of the behavior of Bubbles and Drops. It is represented as: where g is the acceleration due to gravity; ρ L, the liquid density; ρ G, the gas density; σ, the interfacial surface tension; and L is the appropriate linear dimension, e.g., bubble diameter. It represents the.  The water film Weber number (Wef) is defined for the airfoil leading edge region and based on the water film thickness and the water film edge velocity, besides the water properties of density and surface tension (water/surface). In order that this parameter can be easily handled in practice, the edge film velocity is written in terms of the. The surface tension and liquid density for the applied liquids changed a little. In the rectangular tray (6000x100x200) spillway with a sharp threshold was established. It is shown that weir flow coefficient depends on Reynolds number (in case Re < ~ 2000) and Webers number The surface tension and gravitational force are an order of magnitude smaller than the added mass force (added mass number = added mass force/steady inertial force ∼20; Weber number = steady inertial force/surface tension ∼1, Froude number = steady inertial force/gravitational force ∼3; SI Appendix, Detailed Calculations III). Although. If surface tension forces are affecting the flow then Weber number is important. Obviously all the dimensionless parameters will not be included in a particular case as they have to be chosen for a particular situation. 7.7 Similarity Similarity is study of predicting prototype conditions from model observations