Encephalocele refers to the herniation of intracranial contents through the defect in the dura and calvarium [ 1 ]. Encephalocele is a rare entity in routine radiology practice; hence, a radiologist challenged with a case of cephalocele may find oneself lacking appropriate knowledge and reporting skills required to provide an optimal report It is thought to represent involuted true cephalocele (meningocele or encephalocele) connected to dura mater via a fibrous stalk
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Temporal encephaloceles are increasingly visualized during neuroimaging assessment of individuals with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, and their identification could indicate an intracranial abnormality that may be related to a potential seizure focus. Careful review by an experienced neuroradiologist may yield improved detection of TEs, and other clinical. Cephaloceles are defined as congenital herniations of intracranial structures through a skull defect. If the sac contains meninges and cerebrospinal fluid, it is termed a meningocele. Encephalocele describes a sac that contains central nervous system (CNS) tissue. An AC contains meninges and neural rests. 1-
Transsphenoidal and transethmoidal encephaloceles: a review of clinical and roentgen features in 8 cases. Radiology 1968;90(3):442-453. Link, Google Scholar; 44 Aquilina K, Clarke DF, Wheless JW, Boop FA. Microencephaloceles: another dual pathology of intractable temporal lobe epilepsy in childhood. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2010;5(4):360-364 Introduction. Lumps and bumps on the head are a common complaint in children and often a source of concern for parents. The differential diagnosis for the examining physician is broad, and radiologic evaluation is often requested (, 1 2).A wide spectrum of congenital lesions (eg, encephaloceles, nasal gliomas, dermoid and epidermoid cysts, benign tumors) and acquired lesions (eg, sarcoma. Occipital encephalocele resection and primary closure. Preoperative sagittal CT image ( a ) shows herniation of dysplastic brain tissue (*) through a posterior calvarial defect. Postoperative sagittal T1-weighted MRI ( b ) shows interval resection of the herniated brain tissue and closure of the defect via duraplasty and skin ( arrow Background: Occipital encephalocele (OE) are the most common form of this congenital disorder and are manifested as a swelling of different sizes over the occipital bone in the midline. Proper diagnosis and treatment is highly important in the management of this congenital malformation of brain Imaging: High-resolution MRI is performed soon after birth to define contents of the encephalocele, the severity of the malformation, and the frequent associated anomalies. These include callosal agenesis, anomalies of cortical formation, and variable anomalies of the cerebellum, diencephalon, and brainstem
Small temporal pole encephalocele: A hidden cause of normal MRI temporal lobe epilepsy STPE can be a hidden cause of TLE in a subgroup of patients with an initial report of normal MRI. Early identification of this lesion may help to select patients for presurgical evaluation and tailored resection Brain herniations into dural venous sinuses (DVS) are rare findings recently described and their etiology and clinical significance are controversial. We describe five patients with brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium identified on MRI, and discuss their imaging findings, possible causes, an Temporal lobe encephaloceles are an infrequent cause of seizures. Given that these lesions can be missed with standard imaging modalities, they are likely underdiagnosed upon initial medical evaluation. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with intractable seizures. If an encephalocele is . The neural tube is the tissue of an embryo that becomes the brain, spinal cord and bones surrounding each. (Embryo is term used to describe a developing baby to the eighth week after conception) Nasal encephaloceles can be divided into frontoethmoidal and basal encephaloceles. Both conditions are very rare, but frontoethmoidal encephaloceles show a relatively high incidence (1:5,000) in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of encephaloceles may be explained by a disturbance in separation of sur
Radiology demonstrated the presence of a right parapharyngeal process obstructing the nasopharynx and oropharynx and extending to the right middle and posterior fossa, via the foramen ovale. This is a rare type of basal encephalocele, and has never been reported in an infant nor known to present with respiratory distress. The pathogenesis. Cephalocele is a generic term defined as a protrusion of the meninges with or without brain tissue through a defect in the skull. 1-2 A meningocele is a protrusion of only meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). An encephalocele is a protrusion of meninges, CSF, and brain tissue. An encephalocystocele contains meninges, CSF, brain tissue and. Post-traumatic fractures of the roof of the orbit are rare. 1 These are seldom related with orbital blepharocele or encephalocele. 2,3 Very few cases of orbital encephalocele have been reported, with a study published in 2010 stating the number such cases to be 25. 4 The first case was reported in 1951. 5 Orbital encephalocele is a result of frontal impact or lateral blow to the orbit. 3 A. Encephaloceles are more common in individuals who have a family history of neural tube defects such as spina bifida or anencephaly. In such cases, individuals might have a genetic predisposition to developing a neural tube defect and may develop an encephalocele. A person who is genetically predisposed to certain disorders may carry a gene (or.
Encephalocele is a rare type of birth defect of the neural tube that affects the brain. The neural tube is a narrow channel that folds and closes during the third and fourth weeks of pregnancy to form the brain and spinal cord. Encephalocele is a sac-like protrusion or projection of the brain and the membranes that cover it through an opening. Summary: Transalar encephaloceles are rare lesions that do not fit the standard classification of basal encephaloceles. Typically, these lesions present in adulthood, with nonspecific symptoms. We report here a case of a patient with Wegener disease in whom a large transalar encephalocele posterior to the sinus was noted when he was preoperative for left maxillary sinus surgery Rare Combination of Frontonasal and Bilateral Naso-orbital Encephaloceles Case Report Alan A. Alexander 1 *, Megan R. Saettele 2, Daniel L`Heureux 1, Paras A. Shah 3, Kristin A. Fickenscher 4 Radiology Case. 2011 Nov; 5(11):1-7 :: DOI: 10.3941/jrcr.v5i11.71 Occipital encephalocele. A: Calipers mark a bony defect in the occiput through which intracranial contents herniate outside the skull into the encephalocele sac (arrows). B: Sagittal image of a different fetus demonstrating the encephalocele sac (arrow) herniated through a defect in the occiput (arrowheads) above the cervical spine
Lorber, in a series of 45 infants with occipital encephalocele and 10 with occipital meningocele, noted that 25 patients with encephaloceles died, including eight with hydrocephalus and three with microcephaly (87). Only four (9%) were neurologically normal, with two of these requiring shunting We report a rare case of a temporal bone encephalocele after a canal wall down mastoidectomy performed to treat chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma. The patient was treated successfully via an intracranial approach. An enhanced layer-by-layer repair of the encephalocele and skull base deficit was achieved from intradurally to extradurally, using temporalis fascia, nasal septum cartilage. Encephalocele Types. The disorder can be classified into a number of forms based on its location. Frontal Encephalocele. In this form, the midline of the upper region of the skull is affected. An extrinsic mass protrudes through the front region of the skull. It is also called Anterior Encephalocele and is the rarest form of the condition Encephalocele is an open neural tube defect that is most often present at birth. Normally, the neural tube folds and closes to form the brain and spinal cord around the third or fourth week of pregnancy, before most women even know they are pregnant. Encephalocele happens when the tube does not fully close during pregnancy
Encephalocele is the protrusion of intracranial structures through a defect in the skull. The herniated sac may contain meninges and brain tissue (encephalocele) or only meninges (meningocele). Synonyms: cephalocele, cranial or occipital meningocele, cranium bifidum, encephalomeningocele, encephalomeningocystocele Transalar sphenoidal encephaloceles: clinical and radiologic findings. Elster AD (1), Branch CL Jr. (1)Department of Radiology, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27103. Two cases of occult basal encephalocele protruding through defects in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone are presented Encephaloceles can be classified based on location. Occipital encephaloceles present as masses overlying the occiput or posterior neck. Sincipital encephaloceles account for one quarter of all encephaloceles and are further divided by location, specifically the suture through which their defect presents Objective: To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Methods: Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December.
An encephalocele forms when the neural tube does not close properly during gestation. A neural tube is a narrow channel that folds and closes to form the brain and spinal cord. The exact cause, however, is unknown. It usually occurs among families with a history of spina bifida and anencephaly An encephalocele is a protrusion of the brain and/or meninges through a defect in the skull (cranium bifidum) that is closed or covered with skin. Encephalocele is one of the three most common neural tube defects (NTDs). The epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of encephaloceles are discussed in this topic review Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 16:789-791  Ali Nawaz Khan (2015) Encephalocele Imaging. Medscape  O.U Ogbeide, EJ IKUBOR (2008) Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of discordant occipital encephalocele in multiple pregnancy - a case report
Full Text. Abstract. Report of Case The patient, an 11-month-old white male infant, was noted to have a prominent mass medial to the inner canthus of the left eye, present at birth. This mass was moderately firm (rubbery), moveable, and seemed to transilluminate. It measured approximately 20 mm in length and 12 mm in width, extending from just. An encephalocele is defined as a protrusion of cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull. 1 They are generally thought to arise from neural tube defects, leading to malformations of the skull base. Although 80 to 90% of enchepaloceles in the Western hemisphere are occipital, anterior localization occurs much more commonly in the Eastern hemisphere. 2 In Southeast Asia and parts. Radiology department of the University of Pennsylvania, USA and the radiology department the Medical Centre Alkmaar, the Netherlands Acquired encephaloceles are more often than not unilateral. The second clue is the cortical dysplasia (yellow arrow) as part of a migrational abnormality Title:Occipital Encephalocele: Cause, Incidence, Neuroimaging and Surgical Management VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 3 Author(s):Ivana Markovic, Petar Bosnjakovic and Zoran Milenkovic* Affiliation:Department of Radiology, SQU Hospital, Muscat, Department of Radiology, Ibn Sina Hospital, Kuwait, General Hospital 'Sava Surgery' Blvrd.Zorana Djindjica 91, Ni Prenatal diagnosis of encephalocele is accomplished by maternal screening of serum α-fetoprotein levels and ultrasound (US). With two-dimensional ultrasound (2D US), encephalocele appears as a defect in the calvarium containing a cystic or solid mass with a gyral pattern that is contiguous with the brain . Prenatal 2D US detects approximately.
Encephalocele is a rare congenital condition where the neural tube does not close and causes a sac-like bulge with brain tissue and spinal fluid that pokes through the skull. Encephalocele is often found during a prenatal ultrasound. Treatment depends on the location of the encephalocele on the skull Radiology Case Reports. Volume 16, Issue 8, August 2021, Pages 2211-2213. Encephalocele is a congenital defect in the skull and the dura through which intracranial matter herniates outside. The transsellar, trans-sphenoidal variant is the least common subtype of encephalocele, and only a few cases have been previously reported.. Medical definition of encephalocele: hernia of the brain that is either congenital or due to trauma ABSTRACT-Previously utilized means of assessment of occipital encephaloceles are of limited value in defining the anatomy of the sac contents, determination of surgical candidates, and prognosis. Posterior fossa angiography has been utilized in 4 cases. It was helpful in determining the neural contents of the sac and particularly brain-stem positioning as judged from angiographic visualization.
Trans-sphenoidal encephalocele in association with Dandy-Walker complex and cardiovascular anomalies. H. M. Joy 1, C. S. Barker 1, J. H. Small 2 & M. Armitage 3 Neuroradiology volume 43, pages 45-48 (2001)Cite this articl Pediatric Radiology Case. 2016 38Mar; 10(3):36-46 Radiology: A Rare Triad of Giant Occipital Encephalocele with Lipomyelomeningocele, Tetralogy of Fallot, and Situs Inversus Franco et al. rts Surgical management of newborns with encephalocele varies and depends upon the amount of neural tissue in the sac Arachnoid granulations are structures filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that extend into the venous sinuses through openings in the dura mater and allow the drainage of CSF from subarachnoid space into venous system. Usually they are asymptomatic but can be symptomatic when large enough to cause sinus occlusion. We report a rare case of a brain herniation into a giant arachnoid granulation.
Transethmoidal encephaloceles are rare and most commonly present at birth with congenital abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, or visual symptoms. Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old presenting with longstanding headache, blurry vision, anosmia, and rhinorrhea. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a transethmoidal encephalocele. The patient underwent craniotomy for resection of. We have been able to find only one other reported case of a traumatic CSF leak from a COVID-19 nasal swab test. 5 This case was provider performed, however, and the patient was found to have a large, preexisting encephalocele on imaging performed prior to the nasal swab, putting the patient at a much greater risk of iatrogenic injury
Encephalocele. An encephalocele is a rare congenital (present at birth) type of neural tube defect where part of the skull has not formed properly so a portion of brain tissue and associated structures are outside the skull. The protruding sac may be covered with skin or it may be covered with a thin membrane Meningoencephalocele is a type of encephalocele, which is an abnormal sac of fluid, brain tissue, and meninges (membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord) that extends through a defect in the skull.There are two main types of meningoencephalocele, which are named according to the location of the sac. The frontoethmoidal type is located at the frontal and ethmoid bones while the occipital. Radiology 90: 442 - 453, 1968 Pollock JA, Newton TH, Hoyt WF: Transsphenoidal and transethmoidal encephaloceles. A review of clinical and roentgen features in 8 cases. A review of clinical and roentgen features in 8 cases An encephalocele is the protrusion of intracranial contents, including brain matter and meninges through a defect in the cranium or skull base. Abiko et al. noted two types of transsphenoidal meningoencephaloceles: The intrasphenoidal and the true transsphenoidal In: Newton TH, Potts DG (eds) Radiology of the skull and brain, Vol 3, Part 2. Mosby, St Louis, pp 1878-1902. Google Scholar 15. Spring A (1853) Cited from Pollack JA, Newton TH (1971) Encephalocele and cranium bifidum. In: Newton RH, Potts DG (eds) Radiology of the skull and brain, Vol 1. Part 2. Mosby, St Louis, pp 634-64
An unusual case is presented of an intradiploic encephalocele surrounding a cerebrospinal fluid cyst. The relationship of this developmental anomaly to the more commonly encountered midline encephalocele and isolated reports of temporal bone encephaloceles are discussed. Radiology 94: 351-355, 197 The radiodiagnostic signs of congenital basal encephalocele are well known. The case history described here shows that a long existing, acquired, traumatic transethmoidal encephalocele can cause the same roentgen appearance. The differences between the congenital and recent posttraumatic forms are indicated cephalocele: [ en-sef´ah-lo-sēl″ ] hernial protrusion of brain substance and meninges through a congenital or traumatic opening of the skull. occipital encephalocele an encephalocele in the occipital region, the most common kind seen in the Western Hemisphere. A baby with a large occipital encephalocele. From Mueller and Young, 2001 Context . Fetal sincipital encephalocele is one of the most serious congenital neural tube defects with a high risk of mortality and neonatal morbidity. Prenatal diagnosis of this malformation is important in fetal medicine. Case Report . We report a case of prenatal diagnosis of sincipital encephalocele using ultrasound and MRI imaging Imaging prior to intervention for a nasoethmoid mass is essential to avoid misdiagnosis and complications. The nasoethmoid encephaloceles are typically thought of as congenital anomalies, but in this case this is an adult with an acquired encephalocele herniating through a preexisting defect in the cribriform plate. BACK TO MAIN PAG
Orbital encephalocele is a rare complication of orbital roof fracture which is also rare but more common in children. It may be delayed, owing to brain herniation from increased intracranial tension and commonly associated with frontal lobe contusions. It is best visualized using MRI and requires immediate intervention Atretic encephalocele: cystic lesion with no brain herniation that has persistent falcine sinus with fibrous stalk and atrophic straight sinus (KNOW THIS) Osteoma, Fibrous dysplasia, Intraosseous Meningioma, Cephalohematoma, Sclerotic metastasi
Encephalocele is a rare birth defect that is characterized by a partial lack of bone fusion which leaves a gap through which a portion of the brain protrudes outside. The protrusion can be located on any part of the head but it usually affects the.. Intradiploic Encephalocele of the Left Parietal Bone: A Case Report Hyung-Seok Kim, MD, 1 Choon-Woong Huh, MD, 1 Dal-Soo Kim, MD, 1 Jin-Ho Mok, MD, 1 In-Soo Kim, MD, 1 and Geun-Seok Yang, MD 2 1 Department of Neurosurgery, Myongji St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea.: 2 Department of Radiology, Myongji St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea
1. Radiology. 1972 Apr;103(1):127-30. Angiographic assessment of occipital encephaloceles. Gilmor RL, Kalsbeck JE, Goodman JM, Franken EA. PMID KEY WORDS: Temporal epilepsy, Encephalocele, Meningoencephalocele, Electro-corticography,Surgicaloutcome. Temporal lobe encephalocele (TE), a parenchymal pro-trusion through a bony defect in the middle cranial fossa, is a rare but known cause of medically refractory epilepsy (MRE).1 With imaging advances, encephaloceles ar 1. Radiology. 1968 Mar;90(3):442-53. Transsphenoidal and transethmoidal encephaloceles. A review of clinical and roentgen features in 8 cases Pediatric Radiology Radiology Case. 2011 Nov; 5(11):1-7 : Rare Combination of Frontonasal and Bilateral Naso -orbital Enceph aloceles Alexander et al. rts Alan A. Alexander 4 s.com 1 Rare Combination of Frontonasal and Bilateral Naso-orbital Encephaloceles 1*, Megan R. Saettele2, Daniel L'Heureux1, Paras A. Shah3, Kristin A. Fickensche Occipital encephalocele is the most common form of the encephalocele and is manifested as swelling of different sizes over the occipital bone in the midline. The diagnosis is mostly based on the use of neuroimaging techniques. Operation is the best option for treatment and the proper time is between birth and 4 months
The encephalocele was into the sphenoidal sinus through the side wall with a discrete sellar deformation, although without hypothalamic or hypophyseal compromising. MRI is the imaging diagnostic procedure of choice since it allows to precisely identifying the presence of meninges, brain parenchyma and blood vessels inside the bone defect 1 Symptomatic left intradiploic encephalocele. A 50-year-old man developed right upper extremity weakness after a violent coughing spell. Imaging studies ( figure 1, A and B) demonstrated a large fluid-filled calvarial defect containing herniated brain near the level of the motor cortex Summary Background Intrasphenoidal encephalocele (ISE) is a rare clinical entity. The incidence of congenital encephalocele is very low. Accurate diagnosis and surgical approach is of critical value. Case Reports We present a case of intrasphenoidal encephalocele in a 40-year-old man. He complained of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea and recurrent meningitis CHORUS is a hypertext medical reference. More than 1100 documents describe diseases, anatomy, and radiologic findings
Encephalocele is a midline bony defect in the skull with herniation of cerebral tissue and meninges. Occipital encephalocele is the most common . The aetiology of NTDs involves both genetic and environmental factors, however, most cases are sporadic Elster AD, & Branch CL Jr: Transalar sphenoidal encephaloceles: clinical and radiologic findings. Radiology 170: 245 - 247, 1989 Elster AD, Branch CL Jr: Transalar sphenoidal encephaloceles: clinical and radiologic findings. Radiology 170: 245-247, 198 The encephalocele occurs most frequently in occipital region, with 75-80 % of cases, while the frontal or lateral parts of the skull are affected much less often. Occipital encephalocele is accompanied with a defect in occipital squame or the basal occiput, with an enlarged foramen magnum and, at times, agenesis of the first vertebral arch
4.Encephalocele• Is cranium bifidum usually a cyst in the occipital region.• If only contains meningies=meningocele.• If contain meningies and cerebral tissue = encephalocele.• Another group is called basal encephalocele appear at the base of the skull and could be mistaken for a nasal polyp.• Treatment: surgical excision and water. Otolaryngologists have described brain herniation into the mastoid for many years. Although this condition can develop as a result of congenital defects, encephaloceles can also occur postsurgically. Advances in neuroradiology, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have improved the diagnosis and management of. 278 Letters to the Editor Figure 1 Prenatal ultrasound images in fetus with occipital atretic encephalocele. (a) Transverse section of fetal head at 17weeks, showing small occipital cystic mass. (b) Three-dimensional surface-rendered ultrasound image of fetal head at 20weeks, showing focal bulging i Among basal encephaloceles, the transsellar, trans-sphenoidal encephalocele is the least common subtype. We present the case of a newborn female, who presented to us with cleft lip and cleft palate. Diagnostic neuroimaging revealed the presence of transsellar trans-sphenoidal encephalocele along with agenesis of the corpus callosum
Approximately 1 year old male with bilateral naso-orbital encephaloceles and fronto-nasal encephalocele. a: Axial T2 MRI (TR 4250, TE 81.39) of the brain at the level of the orbits depicts the bilateral naso-orbital encephaloceles (solid arrows).b: Coronal T2 MRI (TR 4250, TE 81.39) of the brain at the level of the orbits depicts the bilateral naso-orbital encephaloceles (black arrows) as well. frontonasal dysplasia; optic disc; encephalocele; Frontonasal dysplasia was a term suggested by Sedano et al 1 in 1970 to describe a group of patients with midline facial clefting. It has a wide clinical spectrum in which there may be marked hypertelorism, primary telecanthus, a broad nasal tip which is frequently cleft, median cleft upper lip and premaxilla, median cleft palate, anterior or. A posterior encephalocele measuring approximately 4 cm is present in this 20 week fetus. Of note, the remainder of the intracranial anatomy including the cerebellum appears normal. There is a encephalocele off the posterosuperior aspect of the skull of this 23 week fetus. The skull defect measures 3.2 cm Defect 13. Encephalocele is a rare type of birth defect of the neural tube that affects the brain. ( cdc.gov) Encephalocele is a neural tube defect characterized by sac-like protrusions of the brain and the membranes that cover it through openings in the skull. ( wikipedia.org) A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect. Brain herniations, or encephaloceles, into arachnoid granulations in dural venous sinuses have rarely been reported in the literature in patients with IIH. We propose that dural venous sinus stenting (VSS) may be a safe and effective treatment approach in patients with an encephalocele and IIH