Plane curve definition in mathematics

Plane Curve Definition of Plane Curve by Merriam-Webste

Plane curve - Wikipedi

Definition: Let be a vector-valued function. Then for the interval, if is continuous on and the curve traced by can lie on a single plane, then is called a Plane Curve. We have already dealt with tons of plane curves. For example, the curve is a plane curve because the graph of lies on the -plane This is the curve described by a point \displaystyle P P of a circle of radius \displaystyle a a as it rolls on the outside of a fixed circle of radius \displaystyle a a.The curve is also a special case of the limacon of Pascal A curve is a shape or a line which is smoothly drawn in a plane having a bent or turns in it. For example, a circle is an example of curved-shape. In Mathematics, Geometry is a branch that deals with shapes, sizes, and the properties of figures. Geometry can be classified into two types Algebraic Curve Algebraic curves can be defined as a plane curve in which the set of points are situated on the Euclidean plane. Further, it is represented in the form of a polynomial. Moreover, the set of points for an algebraic curve do fulfil a polynomial equation

10.1: Parametrizations of Plane Curves - Mathematics ..

Planar curves - Math Centra

In these notes we will mainly be concerned with plane curves (n= 2) and space curves (n= 3), but in order to treat both cases simultaneously it is convenient not to specify n. We do not assume n≤ 3 for the time being, since it does not lead to any simplifications. A parametrized continuous curve, for which the map γ:I → Rn is dif A simple closed curve or simple closed contour divides the complex plane into two sets, theinteriorwhich is BOUNDED, and theexterior, which is UNBOUNDED Plane curve synonyms, Plane curve pronunciation, Plane curve translation, English dictionary definition of Plane curve. a curve such that when a plane passes through three points of the curve, it passes through all the other points of the curve. Any other curve is called a..

A plane continuum is a curve in Urysohn's sense if and only if it contains no interior points. G. Cantor previously (in the 1870's) used this property to characterize plane curves. Although Cantor's definition is applicable only to plane curves, general curves in Urysohn's sense are also sometimes called Cantor curves Hexagon : A six-sided and six-angled polygon. Histogram : A graph that uses bars that equal ranges of values. Hyperbola : A type of conic section or symmetrical open curve. The hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane, the difference of whose distance from two fixed points in the plane is a positive constant Several non equivalent definitions exist for the envelope of a 1-parameter family of plane curves. Another notion, often considered as related to envelopes, is the offset at a given distance of a plane curve. Using the so-called analytic definition, we study and compare the envelope of a 1-parameter family of circles centered on a parabola and an offset of this parabola The Devil's Curve was studied by Gabriel Cramer in 1750 and Lacroix in 1810. It appears in Nouvelles Annalesin 1858. Cramer (1704-1752) was a Swiss mathematician. He became professor of mathematics at Geneva and wrote on work related to physics; also on geometry and the history of mathematics A numerical invariant of a one-dimensional algebraic variety defined over a field $ k $. The genus of a smooth complete algebraic curve $ X $ is equal to the dimension of the space of regular differential $ 1 $- forms on $ X $ (cf. Differential form)

Plane Curves and Space Curves - Mathonlin

A planar curve is one that lies in a plane. Some examples are. To be the base of a cone the planar curve must be closed. In the plane, a closed curve is a curve with no endpoints and which completely encloses an area. ( See Wolfram Mathworld .) Thus the line and parabola above can not be the base of a cone Definition. A smooth curve : I R3 is said to be regular if '(t) 0 for all t I . Equivalently, we say that is an immersion of I into R3. The curve (t) = (t3, t2) in the plane fails to be regular when t = 0 . A regular smooth curve has a well-defined tangent line at each point, and the map is one-to-one on a smal the plane which applies to any simple closed curve having a straight line inter-*The geneial problem of the mathematics of precision may be stated in similar terms. t O. VEBLEN, A System of Axioms for Geometry, Transactions of the American Mathe-matical Society, vol. 5 (1904), pp. 343-384 The curvature of the curve can be defined as the ratio of the rotation angle of the tangent Δφ to the traversed arc length Δs = M M 1. This ratio Δφ Δs is called the average curvature of the curve. When the point M 1 approaches the point M, we obtain the curvature of the curve at the point M: k = lim Δs→0 Δφ Δs = dφ ds Curvature. In general, there are two important types of curvature: extrinsic curvature and intrinsic curvature.The extrinsic curvature of curves in two- and three-space was the first type of curvature to be studied historically, culminating in the Frenet formulas, which describe a space curve entirely in terms of its curvature, torsion, and the initial starting point and direction

Plane Curves - Mat

  1. Definition 5.5.1. The upper half-plane model of hyperbolic geometry has space U consisting of all complex numbers z such that Im ( z) > 0, and transformation group U consisting of all Möbius transformations that send U to itself. The space U is called the upper half-plane of C
  2. In mathematics, plane geometry generally refers to Euclidean plane geometry./p> Point, line, triangle, quadrilateral, cilcle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola all are basic geometry shapes under plane geometry. Any plane geometric shape can be drawn on a piece of paper. The position, lenght, perimeter, area of plane geometric figures are measured here
  3. T then the curve can be expressed in the form given above. (b) If m=§1, then the curve is a central conic. (c) If m=a=cthen the curve is a lima»con. Calculus Questions: (a) Find the area enclosed by the outer oval,inner oval, in between. (b) Find the equation of the tangent line to an oval at any point
  4. Plane Definition. In mathematics, a plane is a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends up to infinity. Planes can appear as subspaces of some multidimensional space, as in the case of one of the walls of the room, infinitely expanded, or they can enjoy an independent existence on their own, as in the setting of Euclidean geometry
  5. 31B Length Curve 2 Length of a Plane Curve A plane curve is a curve that lies in a two-dimensional plane. We can define a plane curve using parametric equations. This means we define both x and y as functions of a parameter. Parametric equations Definition A plane curve is smooth if it is given by a pair of parametric equation
  6. Math 222 Section 10.2 - Plane Curves and Parametric Equations Defnition: If f and g are continuous functions of t on and interval I, then the equations x = f (t) and y = g (t) are called parametric equations and t is called the parameter
  7. It is a smoothly flowing line. In mathematics, straight line is also called as curve. Formula : Circle equation => x 2 + y 2 = r 2. Circle is also called as a curve. Example : Cumulative Frequency Cullen Number . Learn what is curve. Also find the definition and meaning for various math words from this math dictionary. Related Calculators.

Complex Analysis Worksheet 17 Math 312 Spring 2014 Curves in the Complex Plane Arcs A point set γ : z =(x,y) in the complex plane is said to be an arc or curve if x = x(t) and y = y(t) where a ≤ t ≤ b, where x(t) and y(t) are continuous functions of t (NOTE: x, y and t are all real variables, NOT complex variables) curvature [ker´vah-chur] a nonangular deviation from a normally straight course. greater curvature of stomach the left or lateral and inferior border of the stomach, marking the inferior junction of the anterior and posterior surfaces. lesser curvature of stomach the right or medial border of the stomach, marking the superior junction of the anterior. (mathematics), a quantity characterizing the deviation of a curve or surface from a line or plane. The deviation of the arc MN (see Figure 1) of the curve L from the tangent MP at the point M may be characterized by the average curvature K av of this arc, which is equal to the quotient of the angle a between the tangents at the points M and N to the length Δs of the arc MN element: a member of, or an object in, a set ellipse: a plane curve resulting from the intersection of a cone by a plane, that looks like a slightly flattened circle (a circle is a special case of an ellipse) elliptic geometry: a non-Euclidean geometry based (at its simplest) on a spherical plane, in which there are no parallel lines and the angles of a triangle sum to more than 180

Curve - Meaning, Definition, Shape, Types and Example

Rectifying Planes. Definition: Let be a vector-valued function that represents the smooth curve for , and let be a point on corresponding to . Then the Rectifying Plane of at point is the plane spanned by and with normal vector {In this short note, we construct a smooth plane curve $\overline{C}$ over $\overline{\mathbb{Q}}$, such that the field of moduli of $\overline{C}$ is not a field of definition for $\overline{C}$, and also fields of definition do not coincide with plane model-fields of definition for $\overline{C}$.

Curves: Types, Simples, Closed, Algebraic, Concepts

  1. plane curve: the <xref>locus</xref> of points in the <xref>Euclidean plane</xref> that satisfies some <xref>geometric</xref> or <xref>algebraic</xref> definition
  2. Mathematics vocabulary word wall cards provide a display of mathematics content words and associated visual cues to assist in vocabulary development. The cards should be used as an instructional tool for teacher
  3. Parabola definition, a plane curve formed by the intersection of a right circular cone with a plane parallel to a generator of the cone; the set of points in a plane that are equidistant from a fixed line and a fixed point in the same plane or in a parallel plane. Equation: y2 = 2px or x2 = 2py. See more
  4. Topological genus = algebraic genus -- verified for hyperelliptic and plane curves, sketch of proof in general case by reduction to case of nodal plane curves via projections. Friday 11/30/12. Global differentials on a plane curve. Definition: The genus of a smooth projective curve is the dimension of the k-vector space of global differentials
  5. Definition of Curved Surface explained with real life illustrated examples. Also learn the facts to easily understand math glossary with fun math worksheet online at SplashLearn. SplashLearn is an award winning math learning program used by more than 40 Million kids for fun math practice
Conic Sections · Calculus

The basic idea is to regard a plane curve DCP 2 as a pair (P 2, D) of a surface together with a divisor, and allow both the surface and the curve to degenerate. For plane curves of degree d ≥ 4, we obtain a compactification M d which is a moduli space of stable pairs (X, D) using the log minimal model program Looks like you don't have Javascript enabled—what's up with that? Papers. Stacky heights on elliptic curves in characteristic 3, arxiv version. A geometric approach to the Cohe Answer to: For the plane curve, graph the curve. x = t^2, y = t^2 4, for t in (- . ) By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step.. Definition 5.12.2 Given an abstract graph, G, we say that G is a planar graph iff there is some plane graph, G, and an isomorphism, ϕ : G → G, between G and the abstract graph associated with G. We call ϕ an embedding of G in the plane or a planar embedding of G. Remarks: 1

Plane curve, in math - crossword puzzle clue

The definition of a parabola is a symmetrical plane curve that forms when a cone intersects with a plane parallel to its... Dictionary Menu. Dictionary A plane curve which is the path, or locus, of a moving point that remains equally distant from a fixed point. Conic section, also called conic, in geometry, any curve produced by the intersection of a plane and a right circular cone.Depending on the angle of the plane relative to the cone, the intersection is a circle, an ellipse, a hyperbola, or a parabola.Special (degenerate) cases of intersection occur when the plane passes through only the apex (producing a single point) or through the apex and. DEFINITION: A cone is defined as a surface generated by a straight line which passes through a fixed point and satisfies one or more conditioni.e.ie, it may intersect a fixed curve. Note: 1. The fixed point is said to be the vertex of the cone . 2. The fixed curve is said to be the guiding curve of the cone . 3 13.1 Space Curves. 1, 2, 3 + t 1, − 2, 2 = 1 + t, 2 − 2 t, 3 + 2 t . Except that this gives a particularly simple geometric object, there is nothing special about the individual functions of t that make up the coordinates of this vector—any vector with a parameter, like f ( t), g ( t), h ( t) , will describe some curve in three dimensions.

In other words, by definition we have $\rho = \frac{ds}{d\psi}$, which we can also write as $\frac{d\psi}{ds}=\frac 1\rho$ by the inverse function theorem. This is also what the actual equation (4) and subsequent equations show. They just misquoted the definition of radius of curvature, but they did apply the real definition correctly PLANE ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 78 § 1. Plane Coordinates 78 1. Cartesian Coordinates 78 2. Some Simple Problems Concerning Cartesian Coordinates 79 3. Polar Coordinates 81 § 2. Curves in Plane 82 4. Equation of a Curve in Cartesian Coordinates 82 5. Equation of a Curve in Polar Coordinates 84 6. Parametric Representation of Curves and Functions 87 7.

Plane-curve Meaning Best 1 Definitions of Plane-curv

(mathematics) an unbounded two-dimensional shape; we will refer to the plane of the graph as the X-Y plane; any line joining two points on a plane lies wholly on that plane shave cut or remove with or as if with a plane; The machine shaved off fine layers from the piece of wood skim travel on the surface of wate definition mi. affine function mi. arc length. parametrized curve mi mi mi. area. from double integral mi. parallelogram mi mi. parametrized surface mi mi mi. under a curve mi mi Elliptic curves are curves defined by a certain type of cubic equation in two variables. The set of rational solutions to this equation has an extremely interesting structure, including a group law. The theory of elliptic curves was essential in Andrew Wiles' proof of Fermat's last theorem. Computational problems involving the group law are also used in many cryptographic applications, and in. Derived curves-the involute, evolute, pedal curve, envelope, and orthogonal trajectories-are also examined, with definitions of their important applications. These range through the fields of optics, electric circuit design, hydraulics, hydrodynamics, classical mechanics, electromagnetism, crystallography, gear design, road engineering, orbits.

Singular Plane Curves, Zariski's Moduli Problem, and the Monster Tower. We will take a look at irreducible curve germs in the plane \(k^2\), where \(k\) is a field of characteristic \(0\). To them, we will associate a numerical semigroup using the theorem of Puiseux Quadratrix of Hippias is the first named curve other than circle and line. It is conceived by Hippias of Ellis (~460 BC) to trisect the angle thus sometimes called trisectrix of Hippias. The curve is better known as quadratrix because it is later used to square the circle Definition of plane in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of plane. What does plane mean? plane, sheet noun (mathematics) an unbounded two-dimensional shape an ideal surface, conceived as coinciding with, or containing, some designated astronomical line, circle, or other curve; as, the plane of an orbit; the plane of the ecliptic.

The projection from X to P is called a parallel projection if all sets of parallel lines in the object are mapped to parallel lines on the drawing. Such a mapping is given by an affine transformation, which is of the form = f(X) = T + AX . where T is a fixed vector in the plane and A is a 3 x 2 constant matrix. Parallel projection has the further property that ratios are preserved A Treatise on Algebraic Plane Curves. Julian Lowell Coolidge. Courier Corporation, Jan 1, 2004 - Mathematics - 513 pages. 0 Reviews. Students and teachers will welcome the return of this unabridged reprint of one of the first English-language texts to offer full coverage of algebraic plane curves. It offers advanced students a detailed. Axial plane synonyms, Axial plane pronunciation, Axial plane translation, English dictionary definition of Axial plane. a carpenter's tool; to smooth: plane the wood; to travel by airplane Not to be confused with: plain - simple; clearly evident; unpretentious; unadorned:.. In mathematics, a cusp is a point on a curve where two branches, The evolute is the locus of the centers of curvature (the envelope) of a plane curve's normals. to a straight line as the straight line rolls along the convex side of a base curve. By the first definition the trochoid is derived from the cycloid;.

Math 8320 Spring 2004, Riemann's view of plane curves Riemann's goal was to classify all complex holomorphic functions of one variable. 1) The fundamental equivalence relation on power series: Consider a convergent power series as representing a holomorphic function in an open disc, and consider two power series a Curves in Parametric Form in the Plane. The formula for the curvature of a curve in the plane described parametrically can easily be derived from the case just considered. But it is more enlightening to start from scratch, since the principles thus derived can then be adapted to the case of curves in three-space Math 366 Definitions and Theorems Chapter 11 In geometry, a line has no thickness, and it extends forever in two directions. A plane has no thickness, and it extends indefinitely in two directions. A plane is determined by A convex curve is a simple, closed curve in which any straight line that crosses the curve crosses it at just two. Definitions A region in the plane is bounded if it lies inside a disk of finite radius. A region is unbounded if it is not bounded. Graphs, Level Curves, and Contours of Functions of Two Variables Definitions The set of points in the plane where a function f (, )xy has a constant value f (, )xy c= is called a level curve of f

(geometry) a curve generated by the intersection of a plane and a circular cone constant of proportionality the constant value of the ratio of two proportional quantities x and y; usually written y = kx, where k is the factor of proportionalit MA 1024 lab 1 - Curve Computations in the Plane. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to curve computations using Maple for parametric curves and vector-valued functions in the plane. Getting Started To assist you, there is a worksheet associated with this lab that contains examples and even solutions to some of the exercises

Line (curve) - Encyclopedia of Mathematic

Definition: Let y: A ® B be a map from one metric space to another, and let be a curve in A. Then, the distortion of y along l at the point p = l(0) is defined as:. We seek a change of coordinates which will distort distances equally in both directions Two focus definition of ellipse. As an alternate definition of an ellipse, we begin with two fixed points in the plane. Now consider any point whose distances from these two points add up to a fixed constant d.The set of all such points is an ellipse Problem 58 Easy Difficulty. Show that the curvature of a plane curve is κ = | d ϕ / d s | where ϕ is the angle between T and i; that is, ϕ is the angle of inclination of the tangent line. (This shows that the definition of curvature is consistent with the definition for plane curves given in Exercise 69 in Section 10.2. 2. The graph of a function. When we plot the graph of a function of the form the x 2 term causes it to be in the shape of a parabola. For more on this see Parabola (Graph of a function). 3. As a conic section. A parabola is formed at the intersection of a plane and a cone when the plane is parallel to one side of the cone 'Earlier Aronhold had worked on plane curves and the problem of the nine points of inflection of the third order plane curve which had been discussed by Plücker some time before.' 'He showed that the tangents drawn from a point to a plane curve of order m have their points of contact on a curve of order m - 1 which he called the polar of.

2.2 Principal normal and curvature. If is an arc length parametrized curve, then is a unit vector (see ( 2.5 )), and hence . Differentiating this relation, we obtain. which states that is orthogonal to the tangent vector, provided it is not a null vector. This fact can be also interpreted from the definition of the second derivative Barrett O'Neill, in Elementary Differential Geometry (Second Edition), 2006. 5.8 Remark. Existence theorem for curves in R 3.Curvature and torsion tell whether two unit-speed curves are isometric, but they do more than that: Given any two continuous functions κ > 0 and τ on an interval I, there exists a unit-speed curve α: I → R 3 that has these functions as its curvature and torsion Definition of the derivative; calculating derivatives using the definition; interpreting the derivative as the slope of the tangent line Differentiation formulas; the power, product, reciprocal, and quotient rule Parametric Curves and Vector-valued Functions in the Plane. Purpose The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to curve computations using Maple for parametric curves and vector-valued functions in the plane. Background By parametric curve in the plane, we mean a pair of equations x=f(t) and y=g(t) for t in some interval I more. Simply put, a parametric curve is a normal curve where we choose to define the curve's x and y values in terms of another variable for simplicity or elegance. A vector-valued function is a function whose value is a vector, like velocity or acceleration (both of which are functions of time)

Curvature - Wikipedi

A plane is a flat surface that extends without end in all directions. In the diagram to the right, Plane P contains points A, B and C. Can you think of some real world objects that satisfy the definition of a plane? At this level of mathematics, that is difficult to do. Intuitively, a plane may be visualized as a flat infinite sheet of paper Get Definitions of Key Math Concepts from Chegg In math there are many key concepts and terms that are crucial for students to know and understand. Often it can be hard to determine what the most important math concepts and terms are, and even once you've identified them you still need to understand what they mean Many mathematical models involve functions of two or more variables. The elevation of a point on a mountain, for example, is a function of two horizontal coordinates; the density of the earth at points and is c2 units above the xy-plane if c 6= 0 (Figure 15). The curve for one positive c is the heavy curve in Figure 16. As c decreases toward 0 Parabola definition is - a plane curve generated by a point moving so that its distance from a fixed point is equal to its distance from a fixed line : the intersection of a right circular cone with a plane parallel to an element of the cone A line segment connecting two points on a curve. Example: the line segment connecting two points on a circle's circumference is a chord. When the chord passes through the center of a circle it is called the diameter

Curvature (plane curve) - definition of Curvature (plane

Math 1210 | Calculus I. These lecture videos are organized in an order that corresponds with the current book we are using for our Math1210, Calculus 1, courses ( Calculus, with Differential Equations, by Varberg, Purcell and Rigdon, 9th edition published by Pearson ). We have numbered the videos for quick reference so it's reasonably obvious. The sphere rolls on the plane without slipping. A curve is thus traced out on the plane and a curve is also traced out on the sphere. What would be a 'good' mathematical definition of without slipping for this situation and how does this limit the sphere's motion? alex A hyperbola is a pair of symmetrical open curves. It is what we get when we slice a pair of vertical joined cones with a vertical plane. How do we create a hyperbola? Take 2 fixed points A and B and let them be 4a units apart. Now, take half of that distance (i.e. 2a units). Now, move along a curve such that from any point on the curve

Plane curve - definition of Plane curve by The Free Dictionar

  1. The resulting curves depend upon the inclination of the axis of the cone to the cutting plane. The Greek mathematician Apollonius studied conic sections geometrically using this concept. In this section, we shall give an analytic definition of a conic section, and as special cases of this definition, we shall obtain the three types of curves
  2. The tangent plane of the graph of a function is, well, a two-dimensional plane that is tangent to this graph. Math · Multivariable I'm so in the single variable world you a common problem that people like to ask in calculus is you'd have some sort of curve and you want to find at a given point what the tangent line to that curve is.
  3. Definition of a Parabola . The parabola is defined as the locus of a point which moves so that it is always the same distance from a fixed point (called the focus) and a given line (called the directrix). [The word locus means the set of points satisfying a given condition. See some background in Distance from a Point to a Line.]. In the following graph
  4. The problem with this definition becomes immediately clear if you try to apply it to the one variable linear approximation, i.e., the tangent line of a curve. As shown in the following figure, many lines satisfy the above condition, as it only specifies that the line passes through the point $(a,f(a))$

Thursday, September 26 Serge Lvovski (Independent University of Moscow) On projective duality ABSTRACT: It is well known that there is a duality between a curve in the projective plane and the curve in the dual projective plane whose points are tangent lines to the curve in question. Unfortunately, it is less well known that this duality can be extended to curves in projective space of. The main result of this article is the determination of the PNC as a cycle; this is an essential ingredient in our computation in Linear orbits of arbitrary plane curves, Michigan Math J., 48 (2000) 1-37, of the degree of the PGL(3)-orbit closure of an arbitrary plane curve, an invariant of natural enumerative significance

Parabola v

The Greeks gave the official definition of conic sections as the curves formed through the intersection ('section') of a cone ('conic') and a plane. The curves are the outlines of the intersecting region. In the example at the beginning, the cone was the beam of the torch, the plane was the floor and the intersection was the image on the floor This precalculus video provides a basic introduction into parametric equations. It explains the process of eliminating the parameter t to get a rectangular. Illustrated definition of Vertex: A point where two or more line segments meet. A corner. Examples: any corner of a pentagon (a plane.. Plane curves, Bezout's theorem, singularities of plane curves. Affine and projective spaces, affine and projective varieties. Examples of all the above. Instructor may choose to include some commutative algebra or some computational examples. Prerequisites: MATH 100B or MATH 103B. Students who have not completed the listed prerequisites may.

Session 20: Velocity and Arc Length | Part C: Parametric

Having two horns.··(mathematics) A plane curve having two cusps (historical) A two-cornered hat worn by European and American military and naval officers from the 1790s As illustrated by the figure, we want this line in the plane to be tangent to the surface z=f(x,y) at P_0 and thus tangent to the curve in the surface. This means we want the number a to be the slope of the tangent line to the curve H=f(x,y_0). This slope is by definition the partial derivative of f with respect to x at (x_0,y_0) 16.1: Line integrals of scalar fields with respect to arclength along curves. 16.2: Line integrals of vector fields. Arclength, parametric, vector, component, and differential form expressions for line integrals. Work done by forces. Circulation of a vector field around a curve. Flux of a vector field across a curve in the plane Conics: definition, focii, directrix, eccentricity, focal axis. Equation of a conic, vertices, center, elements of symmetry, reduced equation. Quadratic curves. (17 h) (18 h) (20 h) 2. VECTORIAL STUDY. Vectors in the plane. Projections in the plane. Bases and reference frame in the plane. Vectors and reference frame in space. Barycenter. Vector.

Curvature | Glossary | Underground MathematicsWhat is Slope? - Definition & Formulas - Video & LessonEuclidean space - WikipediaMathematics Calculus III

For example, the definition of elliptic curve from algebraic geometry is connected non-singular projective curve of genus 1 with a given rational point on it. By the Riemann-Roch theorem , an irreducible plane curve of degree d {\displaystyle d} given by the vanishing locus of a section s ∈ Γ ( P 2 , O P 2 ( d ) ) {\displaystyle s\in.

Cissoid of DioclesRight circular cones | Article about right circular cones

Mathematical curves Article about Mathematical curves by

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7.1: Curvature - Mathematics LibreText

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