How to use et al.'' in a research paper

Using et al. - Citations - Academic Guides at Walden ..

Using et al. For a work with one or two authors, include the name (s) in every citation. Here is how this could look: (Dusek & Bakke, 2019 The term et al. is mainly used for in-text citations of research papers having multiple authors, although some style guidelines also advocate the use of et al. in the reference list. Ethical publication emphasizes that authors should provide an inclusive list of their sources in their manuscripts

Using et al. in APA Style In APA Style in-text citations, when a source has two authors, list both. When there are three or more authors, cite the first author followed by et al. APA does not recommend using et al. in the reference list For citations that fall into the first category, the APA suggests listing all the names. Papers with three or more authors are always cited giving the name of the first author followed by et al. Papers with six or more authors are always cited giving the name of the first author followed by et al The proper use of the abbreviation is ''et al.'' Also, et al. can be directly followed by another punctuation where necessary. However, the period always comes first: (Parker et al., 2018) Always write et al. in lowercase (unless it begins a sentence) and include a period after al., even when it appears in the middle of a sentence. The term al. is an abbreviation of alii and, the entire phrase et al. always follows at least one person's name, job position, or title Et al. can be used in a situation that refers to more than two people. Make sure it's always followed with a period, which indicates that it's an abbreviation, but given its prevalence in the English language, italicizing it is not necessary in reference citations, though some publications may require it

Use et al. on the subsequent citations for three, four, or five authors. Any time you have more than two authors, the potential for using et al. with in-text citation is there. As such, the first citation should spell out all their names, and any subsequent citation can include et al. after the first author In et al., et should not be followed by a period. Only al should be followed by a period. If you're citing multiple works with similar groups of authors, and the shortened et al citation form of each source would be the same, you'll need to avoid ambiguity by writing out more names. If you cited works with these authors The abbreviation et al. is used both in parenthetical citations and in running text citations. Chapter 6 of the Publication Manual is devoted to how to cite references in the text. Among other places in that chapter, you can see the use of et al. in Table 6.1 on page 177. January 09, 2012 at 09:16 AM For any source with more than two authors, type out the first author's last name followed by et al. Follow this format for the first and subsequent citations of the source. Example for a source with three authors, Rasmussen, Hopkins, and Fitzpatrick: Research plays a vital role in development planning (Rasmussen et al., 2004)

When to use et al. You can use et al. in both the in-text citation and in the Works Cited page. When using et al. you should always use the name of the writer listed first in the source material. Note: Using et al. should not be confused with etc. or other abbreviations that indicate more content than listed APA format requires that you cite all of the authors at the first mention if there are three, four, or five, and use et al. afterward. If there are at least six authors, then you may use et al. from the first mention. In all cases, you should use the last name of the first author followed by et al. in your in-text citation For giving a research presentation, I will need to refer to papers with multiple authors. When citing in the slides, I use the convention (as does everyone else) of 'et al.' How should I pronounce this when speaking during the presentation? I don't speak French fluently, but I know that the French pronunciation is 'ai-taal'

Using et al. in in-text reference citations in research ..

Et Al. What Does It Mean and How Do You Use It Correctly

  1. 1 Answer1. The grammatically correct way is Einstein et al.'s paper, because to indicate possession by a noun phrase in English, the 's should be applied to the end of the phrase. However, I don't believe this specific construction is used much, as to me that looks somewhat unusual and feels informal
  2. research (Calzetta et al. 2017), but are likely to become more common in the future as a greater number of high quality primary clinical research studies (particularly randomised controlled trials) are reported. Primary clinical research studies can be experimental or observational. In experimental studies, such as the RCT, the investigato
  3. ology in research can be confusing for the novice research reader where a term like 'random' refers to an organized manner of selecting items or participants, and the word 'significance' is applied to a degree of chance. Thus the aim of this article is to take a step-by-step approach to critiquing research in an attempt to help nurses.
  4. widely documented throughout the literature (Abu-Shahwan, 2008; Aouad et al., 2005; Aouad et al., 2007). Current research supports the use of propofol, as discussed above; however, a . In this paragraph, the authors have pointed out a limitation in the existing literature, and made recommendations about how to address it
  5. by their own positive schooling experiences (Younger et al., 2004). Research papers begin with an introduction in which literature is cited to introduce the problem, establish its importance, provide an overview of the relevant literature, show how current study will advance knowledge in th
  6. Music therapy [MT] Term used primarily for a setting, where sessions are provided by a board-certified music therapist. Music therapy [MT] (Maratos et al., 2008; Bradt et al., 2015) stands for the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music.

Et al. is an abbreviation for et alia (neuter plural). But it can also be an abbreviation for et alii (masculine plural), or et aliae (feminine plural). This phrase means and others.. Most commonly, et al. indicates other contributors (authors, editors, etc.) in a bibliographic list, such as Feynman, Hawking, Sagan, et al. Our results suggest its use as anti-tumor (Singh et al. 1979, 1981, 1986, 2010) and immunomodulator agent (Dixit et al., 1995). The research and studies of Ashwagandha's activities in the inhibition and reduction of tumour growth have shown encouraging evidence that this remarkable herb may prove to be extremely effective in the treatment of. Prior research has provided such reporting guidelines (Hair et al., 2011; Hair et al., 2013; Hair et al., 2012b; Chin, 2010; Tenenhaus et al., 2005; Henseler et al., 2009), which, in light of more recent research and methodological developments in the PLS-SEM domain, need to be continuously extended and updated. We hope this paper achieves this.

Using et al. in research papers for in-text references ..

Step 13 Research Paper Works Cited Page; In any research paper, it is critical to use good research to support the claims being made and to correctly cite this research. In the humanities and liberal arts, the style most often used is MLA, which stands for the Modern Language Association 244 F. Vanclay et al. paper is relevant to all fields of impact assessment given that the principles of ethical human research are considered to apply to any research (i.e. data collection) process that involves human beings, whether humans are the subject of the research or only the providers of data

How to Use ''et al.'' in APA Style (7th Edition

  1. that the use of scales is pervasive in social and personality psychology research, and highlights the crucial role of construct validation in the conclusions derived from the use of scale scores [Flake et al. 2017]. Burns et al. (2017) has analyzed the criterion-related validity of a genera
  2. John et al. argue that many conservation researchers are undertaking research on people without being properly informed on issues such as informed consent (checking that participants understand the aims of the project and how their data will be used), anonymity (protecting the identity of informants) and compensation (providing some form of.
  3. Research also refers to digitization as a change of analog to digital tasks (Li et al., 2016, Sebastian et al., 2017), or conceptualized it as the integration of IT with existing tasks, and, more broadly, as the development or enabler of cost-effective resource configurations using IT (Lai et al., 2010, Vendrell-Herrero et al., 2017). Based on.
  4. The MATH+ protocol was based on the collective expertise of the group in both the research and (Kory et al., 2020;Marik et al., 2020). The most recent paper reported a 6.1% hospital mortality rate in COVID-19 patients measured in the two U.S hospitals that systematically adopted the MATH+ protocol (Kory et al., 2020). This was a markedl

Draws heavily on previous established research in an attempt to distil the key aspects of case study research in such a way as to encourage new researchers to grapple with and apply these. Explains when case study can be used, research design, data collection and data analysis, offering suggestions for drawing on the evidence in writing a report or dissertation and challenges to appropriate care (Houghton et al. 2016) This understanding can inform policy development and further research. For quality purposes, Oliver et al. (2012) recommends both a review team and an advisory group for ensuring the appropriate and rigorous conduct of qualitative synthesis

How to List Authors and Use et al in Citations Wordvic

Et Al. Meaning and How to Use It - ThoughtC

Similarly, a new paper by Cleeren et al. , Marketing Research on Product-Harm Crises: A Review, Managerial Implications, and an Agenda for Future Research, provides a rich systematic review, synthesizes extant research, and points the way forward for scholars who are interested in issues related to defective or dangerous market offerings 2019 Child option: Explain how the key research by Ainsworth and Bell (1970) could be used to help parents of young children. [10] [10] 2019 Crime option : Use the key research by Haney et al. (1973) to explain how prison can affect prisoners the phrase level (Wilson et al., 2005; Agarwal et al., 2009). Microblog data like Twitter, on which users post real time reactions to and opinions about every-thing, poses newer and different challenges. Some of the early and recent results on sentiment analysis of Twitter data are by Go et al. (2009), (Bermingha

3 Ways to Use Et Al - wikiHo

This document illustrates the use of BibTeX. You may want to refer to Arrow et al. (1961) or Aliprantis and Border (1994) or Maskin (1985). Or you may want to cite a specific page in a reference, like this: see Maskin (1985, p. 199). Or perhaps you want to cite more than one paper by Maskin: Maskin (1985, 1999) evoking images of minority groups. (Luther et al., 2012, p. 322) In very early films, such as Birth of a Nation from 1915 (which was originally called The Clansman) and the Tarzan series from 1932, African Americans were represented in the films as savage, ignorant, thieves, interlopers and potential rapists (Luther et al., 2012, p.59). Eve The abstract of a paper provides a key summary of the key elements of the paper, including the aim, design, results, and implications of the findings of the study (Caldwell et al., 2011). This paper utilises a structured abstract, providing clarity in interpreting the key elements of the paper (Grove et al., 2012) A growing body of research explores emoji, which are visual symbols in computer mediated communication (CMC). In the 20 years since the first set of emoji was released, research on it has been on the increase, albeit in a variety of directions. We reviewed the extant body of research on emoji and noted the development, usage, function, and application of emoji

How to Do in Text Et Al Citations in Harvard Style: 6 Steps

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors // Purdue Writing La

  1. surprising, but confirmed in the research, is that people who smoke are less likely to adhere to an exercise program (Trost et al., 2002). Furthermore, a person with low self-worth (i.e., self-doubt, insecure, negative self talk) and poor body image is more likely to be an exercise dropout (Huberty et al., 2008)
  2. How & When to Use et al. The abbreviation et al. is short for et alia. The term simply means and others. It's used by writers when writing academic citations whenever they are referring to a single source with multiple authors. Here's an example: Peter et al. (2020) argue that
  3. Katrina Mc Nei et al (2013)[5] studied about the properties of the RCA, the effects of RCA use on concrete material properties, and the large scale impact of RCA on structural members and found that aggregate properties are most affected by the residual adhered mortar on RCA due to less density and more porosity of the RCA
  4. Step 2. Use the lead author's name and et al. for subsequent parenthetical citation of a work with 3 to 5 authors. All author surnames should be given in the initial citation. For example, initial parenthetical citation: (Krimgold, Queezy, Percival, & Rent, 2011); subsequent parenthetical citation: (Krimgold et al., 2011)
  5. using our sentiment analysis results and presents our find-ings. In Section 6, we use the predicted values and devise a naive strategy to maintain a profitable portfolio. 2. ALGORITHM The technique used in this paper builds directly on the one used by Bollen et al. [1]. The raw DJIA values are first fe

The authors use the introduction to contextualise the problem in relation to published research, stating the importance of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), because of the impact of the disease on these individuals' daily lives (Tangkawanich et al, 2008 p 216) ### What you need to know Post-acute covid-19 (long covid) seems to be a multisystem disease, sometimes occurring after a relatively mild acute illness.1 Clinical management requires a whole-patient perspective.2 This article, intended for primary care clinicians, relates to the patient who has a delayed recovery from an episode of covid-19 that was managed in the community or in a. As the Panel on Sentencing Research noted, '' [Sentencing] disparity exists when 'like cases' with respect to case attributes—regardless of their legitimacy— are sentenced differently'' (Blumstein et al., p. 72). Discrimination, on the other hand, is a difference that results from differential treatment based on illegitimate.

APA Style 6th Edition Blog: The Proper Use of Et Al

To indicate a work with more than three authors or editors, use et al. (Latin expression meaning and others) e.g. (Carmichael et al. 25). You can solve any problem with in-text citations with the help of the following writing platforms In this independent discussion paper, we examine investment in artificial intelligence (AI), describe how it is being deployed by companies that have started to use these technologies across sectors, and aim to explore its potential to become a major business disrupter. To do this, we looked at AI through several lenses Noyes J, Gough D, Lewin S, Mayhew A, Michie S, et al. (2013) A research and development agenda for systematic reviews that ask complex questions about complex interventions. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 66: 1262-1270. pmid:23953084 . View Article PubMed/NCBI Google Scholar 5

How do I use et al. in APA? - Quick Answer

Buonanno, M. et al. 207-nm UV light-a promising tool for safe low-cost reduction of surgical site infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies. PLoS One 11(6), e0138418 (2016). 14. Buonanno, M. et al. The use of the word causal (Tangkawanich et al, 2008 p. 216) also suggests that this is a quantitative research article. It does not clearly indicate the research approach used (Cormack, 2000). To the less research-aware reader, it would be difficult to divine this information from the title alone, and it could be argued that it would be better. Potential ethical issues with research involving people with dementia include respecting their abilities to make decisions, securing consent to participate from proxy decision-makers (e.g., family members) without directly seeking assent (i.e., agreement) to participate from the person with dementia (Slaughter et al., 2007), or simply excluding. Review of literature reveals that most of the papers on women entrepreneurship fall under the positivist research paradigm. Many are empirical studies focusing on male and female entrepreneur comparisons, which provide less information on industry sectors or the sampling methods used (Henry et al. 2016) Myhrvold, C. et al. Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13. Science 360 , 444-448 (2018). CAS Article Google Schola

Williamson,2002), the Palma ratio (Chandy et al., 2013), or the income share of the bottom 40% (Ncube et al., 2014). A previous version of this paper used differences in growth rates of the bottom 40% and the mean to project poverty towards 2030 (Lakner et al. 2014), similar to Hoy and Samman (2015) The survey was designed with reference to the principles adopted in an earlier 2014 study in which the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) and the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF) developed a Research Use Survey (RUS) (Nelson et al., 2017). The new survey took the most effective elements of the RUS, and augmented these with. For those wondering about the rightful place of et al., it is in footnotes and citations. For example, in a bibliography, rather than listing five authors of a scientific paper, we can list the first author's name and then use et al. for the remaining four authors. Et al. always refers to people-not things

It also informs the readers about the rationale to use the outlined method and the existing proof that the method works. In the study by Kim et al. (2012), as mentioned by Chen et al. (2015, p. 209), the study method used involved an online survey based on the messages of various consumer products Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. Search across a wide variety of disciplines and sources: articles, theses, books, abstracts and court opinions Worlds Cities for UN-Habitat (Scheinberg et al., 2010b). All three of the current authors were involved in the subsequent analysis of the new set of consistent data collected for 20 reference cities in all six continents as part of that work (Wilson et al., 2012). The analytical framework used here is a version of integrate

The use of Research Questions as opposed to objectives or hypothesis, is more frequent. Characteristics Use of words- what or how. Specify whether the study: discovers, seeks to understand, explores or describes the experiences. Use of non-directional wording in the question. These questions describe, rather than relate variables or compare groups This paper aims to provide an overview of the use and assessment of qualitative research methods in the health sciences. Qualitative research can be defined as the study of the nature of phenomena and is especially appropriate for answering questions of why something is (not) observed, assessing complex multi-component interventions, and focussing on intervention improvement 2015, Yousef et al., 2014). Indeed, the blended learning approach appears to be strongly backed as a preference of students (Ramlogan et al., 2014, Scagnoli et al., 2017, Mitra et al., 2010). On the flipside, the digital revolution in higher education has created some cause for concern among education leaders. While online provision is an. A mess of plastic. It is not clear what strategies will be most effective in mitigating harm from the global problem of plastic pollution. Borrelle et al. and Lau et al. discuss possible solutions and their impacts. Both groups found that substantial reductions in plastic-waste generation can be made in the coming decades with immediate, concerted, and vigorous action, but even in the best.

How to use et al. in MLA EasyBi

Further, given the correlational nature of the research, the results cannot resolve whether, as claimed, frequent search engine use can actually supplant thinking, or whether individuals who already have a weaker tendency to engage cognitive analytic strategies also tend to use search engines more frequently [see also Small et al. (2009. Machine Learning (ML) methods have been proposed in the academic literature as alternatives to statistical ones for time series forecasting. Yet, scant evidence is available about their relative performance in terms of accuracy and computational requirements. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate such performance across multiple forecasting horizons using a large subset of 1045 monthly time. Although the repetition of Taylor et al. in the works-cited-list entries above indicates that the authorship of the essays is not exactly the same, mentioning the coauthors' names in your prose or in an endnote might be useful if you wish to make the authorship clearer or to give credit to the collaborators Paraphrasing or summarizing the main findings or takeaways from a research article is the preferred method of citing sources in an APA paper. Always include the last name of the author(s) and the year of the article, so your reader can find the full citation in the reference list

Et tu, Et al.? How to Cite Multiple Authors in Academic ..

How to pronounce 'et al' in presentation speech

Although there is no consensus on the definition of care management and care coordination or even whether they are different, the term care coordination will be used in this paper to encompass both concepts (Lines et al., 2013). This background paper examines select care coordination models that have been used with older adults, with a focus on. Use et al in in-text citations for more than 6 authors. While you should list up to 7 authors' names in your reference list, you can represent all but the first author's name by et al. in all of your in-text citations (not just the first one) when there are 6 or more authors legitimacy to practicing managers. We therefore use relevance to practice as one of the lenses used to identify and prioritize a new research agenda for marketing strategy. The paper is structured as follows. First, we develop a new integrated conceptual model of marketing strategy to guide our review. Next, we describe the journal sample and. For research using Glassdoor data to predict financial fraud, see Y. Ji, O. Rozenbaum, and K.T. Welch, Corporate Culture and Financial Reporting Risk: Looking Through the Glassdoor, working paper, SSRN, June 1, 2017; M. Huang, A. Masli, F. Meschke, et al., Clients' Workplace Environment and Corporate Audits, Auditing: A Journal of. Although research evidence is being produced at an increasing rate, change in clinical practice to reflect this evidence has lagged behind (Kitson 2008, Benner et al. 2010). For example, in Australia, clinician compliance with providing appropriate care for 22 conditions in large nationwide cross-sectional study ranged from 32-86% (Runciman.

The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases Bruhlmann et al., 2000). Pectinase is a well known term for commercial enzyme preparation that break down pectin; a polysaccharide substrate, found in the cell wall of plants. Pectinase (E.C. constitutes a complex enzymatic system responsible for the degradation of pectic substances (Farooqahamed, et al., 2003) Examples of such schedules can be found in the Media Guide (pp.31, 33), Cohen et al (2006)1 and Hammersley et al (pp.197, 199). Structured observation is a quantitative, positivistic method; the Media Guide describes observation schedules as a means of gathering quantitative data (Media Guide, p.30)

When to use et al. in Harvard referencing style EasyBi

The Payback Framework enables health and medical research and impact to be linked and the process by which impact occurs to be traced. For more extensive reviews of the Payback Framework, see Davies et al. (2005), Wooding et al. (2007), Nason et al. (2008), and Hanney and González-Block (2011) both. Ilioudi et al. performed a similar study using three pairs of videos recorded in both live classroom lecture and Khan-style formats, like those shown in Figure1a. and c., respectively. They presented those videos to 36 high school students, who showed a slight preference for classroom lec-ture videos over Khan-style videos [8]. Although. ISP 010.1177/0020764020961790International Journal of Social PsychiatryGurvich et al. research-article2020 Original Article. Gurvich et al. 541 disease outbreaks are not limited to those infected, car-egivers and healthcare workers. Rather, the mental healt

Research in Marketing (Barwise 1993) and Journal of Marketing Research (Shocker et al. 1994). For a more exhaustive review of the academic literature on brands and brand management, see Kevin Lane Keller (2002), Branding and Brand Equity, in Handbook of Marketing, eds., Bart Weitz and Robin Wensley, Sage Publications, London, 151-178 both algorithmic and face-to-face loans, we conservatively use the pure-platform sample of Buchak et al. (2017). Our main results are the following two findings concerning the price of mortgages. First, accepted Latinx and African-American borrowers pay 7.9 and 3.6 basis points more in interes Qamar et al. (2013) breaks down Trompenaars theory into two separate aspects, the first being three ways cultures handle problems, and the second being the five dimensions individuals use to work with others. Magnusson et al. (2008) does not differentiate these differences, instead identifying seven dimensions for his theory (p. 186) Méthode. Le choix des articles du Journal, parus dans les sections Original Research et State of the Art en vue de la promotion par la baladodiffusion et l'infographie a été effectué par l'équipe des médias sociaux d'après sa perception de l'intérêt pour les médecins d'urgence.Un groupe témoin d'articles parus dans les numéros de 2015 et de 2016 et ayant fait l'objet. Samples of Formatted References for Authors of Journal Articles. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) offers guidance to authors in its publication Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (ICMJE Recommendations), which was formerly the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts

Video: Should I use the name of the first author or the

et al 2014). Nurses may benefit from a discussion that helps them understand the sequence of a research paper (Moxham 2012) that uses quantitative methodology. Conclusion The content of a typical quantitative research paper will be discussed in a systematic, logical order. A quantitative grid is provided at the end of the paper Most research papers on this site discuss substantive, topic-based areas of political science. These subfields are driven by assumptions, or theories, about the way the political world works. In contrast, this research paper focuses on a specific method for studying political phenomena: the experimental method

Using such approaches, available evidence would suggest that the use of a spacer/VHC of any reasonable construction and design (including disposable devices and homemade, ad hoc devices such as bottomless plastic bottles and toilet paper rolls) significantly reduces the large-particle fraction (that likely to impact in the mouth and throat) and. COVID-19 has raised the profile of violence against women and children (VAW/C) within the global discourse. Nine months after the emergence of COVID-19, global stakeholders continue to advocate for increased funding and action to mitigate against the risk of violence on vulnerable populations and support survivors. How much have we learned from research since the beginning o Logan et al. describe the unintended effect of providing an activity diary to their control arm of an occupational therapy intervention study for stroke survivors as minimising the true difference between the groups, CONSORT now comprises a 22-item checklist assessing each section of the research paper Introduction. When asked what would make their working life easier or how they could be better supported to deliver the care to which they aspire, nurses most often say better staffing, according to a body of research evidence linking nurse staffing with staff wellbeing, care quality and patient outcomes (Bridges et al, 2019; Aiken et al, 2012)

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